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Thursday, May 30, 2019

GEM countdown begins - Al Ahram Weekly

GEM countdown begins

The Grand Egyptian Museum on the Giza Plateau is well on its way to its grand opening in 2020, writes Nevine El-Aref

GEM countdown begins
GEM countdown begins

Overlooking the Pyramids on the Giza Plateau, the Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM) with its eye-catching trapezoidal architectural design and distinguished external wall is surrounded by workers, engineers and consultants all wearing gloves and yellow helmets and hard at work.

They are absorbed and driven in spite of the heat to complete the construction of the long-awaited 500,000 square metres of the new museum, whose spacious, transparent marble-fronted building offers an enormous panoramic view of the Giza Plateau.

"The work is at full swing, and the site is a hive of activity to complete this gigantic and long-awaited project," Atef Moftah, supervisor-general of the GEM project, told Al-Ahram Weekly. The project is almost complete architecturally in work that has been done in collaboration with the Engineering Authority of the Armed Forces, but the archaeological displays are still being completed.  

Moftah said a final revision of the bid documents was taking place in order to launch work in June among the shortlist of companies and consortiums that were selected last year to enter the open tender to manage the facilities of the GEM. 

The facilities include a 1,000-seat conference centre, a 500-seat cinema, eight restaurants, with two overlooking the Giza Pyramids, an open-air theatre, food courts, bookshops and other retail outlets with 28 shops, a traditional arts and crafts centre, a spacious piazza for festivals of more than 15,000 participants and a multifunctional building. 

Moftah said that the Ministry of Antiquities was the only authority responsible for the management and security of the GEM's collection, as well as everything related to antiquities, such as the exhibition halls, the maintenance and restoration centre, and the children's museum.

He said that the surface area of the indoor exhibition was 35,000 metres and the outdoor one was 55,000 metres, while the commercial and investment area was more than 65,000 metres and would provide revenue for the project.

A state-of-the-art security system has been installed in the museum to detect the movement of every artefact in the collection as well as the corridors, galleries, laboratories, storage areas, and the garden via cameras installed inside and outside the museum and in its external walls. 

Moftah described the GEM as "the largest and most significant cultural project in the world today that will change Egypt's tourism map. It will be a wonderful attraction that will blend history with a modern and authentic twist."

Egypt is the world capital of cultural tourism, he said, adding that nothing could make a bolder statement than when this magnificent new museum sees its official opening with the completion of the Giza Plateau Development Project and the area around the GEM as a whole.

In the development of the area surrounding the GEM, the Al-Remaya Club has been relocated to another place on the Cairo-Ain Sokhna Road and its previous area will be connected to another 52-feddan plot of land located beside the ring road to form a cultural and entertainment zone for the museum's visitors and the area's inhabitants.

Moftah added that after the opening of the museum and the development of the area around it, more and more tourists will want to extend their stays in Cairo from the present two to five nights or beyond.

The area around the GEM was also now under development in collaboration with the ministries of housing and new urban communities, defence, and irrigation along with the Cairo governorate. The project will be executed in phases, with the first one already started with the building of the surrounding roads. 

Two roads with four lanes each have been created in the northern and southern areas to reduce traffic around the GEM, in addition to the digging of the 1.2km Fayoum Road Tunnel to solve traffic problems in the area between Al-Remaya Square, the Faisal and Pyramid Roads and the Fayoum-Alexandria Road. 

"Ninety-five per cent of the work has been completed, and the digging of the tunnel has already started beside the land of the Al-Remaya Club," Moftah said. He added that a metro station would be built in the vicinity of the GEM, with ideas in the pipeline to lay on transport between the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, the GEM, and the National Museum of Egyptian Civilisation. 

These are being studied by the prime minister and the ministers of antiquities, and housing, and the Cairo and Giza governors.


EXHIBITION: The newly transported obelisk from the San Al-Hagar archaeological site in Zagazig will be part of the collection of the GEM. 

It will be put on show in the Obelisk Square at the GEM's main entrance. It will be the first obelisk in the world to be placed in a special display offering visitors the opportunity to walk beneath it and see the cartouche of king Ramses II engraved on its bottom.

Ancient Egyptian royal figures used to engrave their cartouches on the bottoms of obelisks as a mark of ownership. 

The estimated cost of the GEM project is $1.6 billion, with costs increasing as a result of various delays but still being trimmed by some $770 million. Some 44 of the 87 large objects that will be exhibited on the GEM's grand staircase have been transported. 

Moftah told the Weekly that the GEM had a 17-metre esplanade in front of it and a striking architectural design that incorporated a wall 50 metres high and 800 metres long with a total surface of 27,000 square metres.

The design was complicated, and its construction would cost $186 million according to a study carried out at the beginning of the project because the marble used was imported from Italy. The cost had increased to almost $200 million in 2016-2017 when the construction of the wall began.

As a result, Moftah said a decision had been taken to rationalise the construction without compromising the quality of the material used. "We kept the original vision of the designer, but with a little twist," Moftah said, adding that Egyptian materials were used in the wall construction instead such as the transparent marble and metal frame at a lesser cost.

The GEM project was launched in 2002 in order to build a state-of-the-art antiquities museum near the Giza Pyramids to solve the problems of the overstuffed Egyptian Museum in Tahrir Square and to bring together materials stored at various archaeological sites across the country.

The museum will centre on what has been called the "Dunnal Eye", an area containing the main exhibition spaces. From this central hub, a network of streets, piazzas and bridges will link the museum's many sections. The design is by Shih-Fu Peng of the Dublin architectural firm Heneghan, winner of the international architectural competition held in 2003.

The GEM is to display a collection of 100,000 objects from ancient Egypt beginning with prehistory and going up to the early Roman period. Among the objects on display will be the unique objects of the boy king Tutankhamun.

It will house a conference centre with an auditorium seating 1,000 and catering to theatrical performances, concerts, conferences and business meetings. The main auditorium will be supplemented with seminar rooms, meeting rooms, a multi-purpose hall suitable for a variety of events, and an open-plan gallery for accompanying exhibitions.

A 7,000 square metre commercial area with retail shops, cafeterias, restaurants, leisure and recreational activities is planned for the ground-floor level, as well as a 250-seat cinema.

The first and second phases of the GEM were completed in 2010. They included the construction of a power plant, fire station, and fully equipped conservation centre built 10 metres below ground level. The centre has 12 laboratories and four storage galleries. It is believed to be the largest such facility in the world and is intended as a regional, as well as an Egyptian, expert centre.

The museum's storage rooms are equipped with units designed for secure storage and easy access. The environment is determined by the materials kept in the individual rooms, whether they are organic or non-organic, or require low temperatures to optimise preservation.

The project is funded by the Egyptian government and two loans from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), which in 2006 provided the first soft loan of $300 million to be repaid over 30 years at 1.5 per cent interest. Payments will be made in instalments after a 10-year grace period following the GEM's official opening. The second soft loan is for some $460 million, which the government will repay over 25 years at an interest rate of 1.4 per cent after a seven-year grace period.

Another $27 million has been donated by Egyptian businessmen, while the Ministry of Culture under the former Mubarak regime provided $150 million. However, problems encountered after the 25 January Revolution led to budgetary problems, slowing the construction of the new museum.

In 2012, a joint venture between Egypt's Orascom Construction Industries (OCI) and the Belgian BESIX Group was awarded the contract for the completion of the GEM's third phase, which includes the construction of the museum's main building and landscaping. 

The museum will be opened to the public in 2020.

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Changes in the EES London Office | Egypt Exploration Society

Changes in the EES London Office

Following a review of its finances, as envisaged at the Annual General Meeting last November, the Trustees have decided to review the role of its Director whilst reducing the London office headcount and postponing the Society's own programme of fieldwork and research grants for the time being. Cédric Gobeil, who has been Director since October 2016, has decided to leave at the end of May to pursue elsewhere his interests in archaeological fieldwork. We are very grateful to Cédric for all he has done for the Society and wish him well for the future.

Carl Graves, Deputy Director, will assume the role of Director when Cédric leaves. The other staff in the London office will remain in post.


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AWOL - The Ancient World Online: The Monasteries and Monks of Nubia
On 05/30/2019 08:05 AM, Chuck Jones wrote:
The Monasteries and Monks of Nubia The Monasteries and Monks of Nubia
Artur Obłuski
Translated by Dorota Dzierzbicka
Journal of Juristic Papyrology Supplement 36 
ISBN: 978–83–946848–6–0
The aim of this book is to present the material record of Nubian monasticism in a systematic manner and to conduct a comparative analysis of this phenomenon. This book also addresses several fundamental issues, for instance the presence of various forms of monasticism (hermitages, laurae and coenobitic monasteries) in Nubia and their spatial organisation. The source base for reconstructing the monastic movement in Nubia, or rather life in individual monasteries, is largely archaeological and epigraphic. In order to analyse sources regarding Nubian monasteries, it is necessary to place them in the wider perspective of the Christian monastic movement – a new social phenomenon never before or after repeated in the history of humankind. Looking beyond Nubia is motivated not only by the desire to find reference points in centres that influenced the formation of the Nubian civilisation, but also because such parallels are indispensable for the interpretation of archaeological finds. One of the fundamental questions posed repeatedly in this book concerns the models that inspired the creators of monastic communities in Nubia. The geographic arguments point primarily to Egypt, but other regions of the Late Antique East should not be ruled out prematurely. We have, for instance, sound evidence for Syrian influence on the culture of Christian Nubia, especially liturgy. Also Constantinople, a core region of the Eastern Mediterranean and the imperial capital, must be considered as a possible source of inspiration. This book also addresses several fundamental issues, for instance the presence of various forms of monasticism (hermitages, laurae and coenobitic monasteries) in Nubia and their spatial organisation. Thus far, attempts to characterise Nubian monasticism in a synthetic manner have taken the form of short articles (Godlewski 2013; 2015) limited mostly to discussion of architectural features. In addition, with the notable exception of Adam Łajtar's ad-hoc publications spurred by the emergence of new evidence, no study published to date collects and discusses the various titles associated with the monastic milieu, investigating who stood at the head of coenobitic communities, what their internal organisation was like, and how the monastic, ecclesiastical and spiritual hierarchies were intertwined. Another area in need of investigation is the relationship between Nubian monks and society, including the roles they played in lay communities and whether they really 'abandoned' the world at large. The book seeks to determine whether the Nubian elites perceived monastics as a threat to their dominant position in the social hierarchy, or rather collaborated with monks, taking advantage of the fact that monasteries offered human resources with highly esteemed and useful skills that proved helpful, if not indispensable, in managing non-monastic communities ranging from individual settlements to the state.

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AWOL - The Ancient World Online: The Theban Necropolis Preservation Initiative
On 05/30/2019 12:41 PM, Chuck Jones wrote:
The Theban Necropolis Preservation Initiative The Theban Necropolis Preservation Initiative
Logo Factum Foundation

Under the supervision of the Ministry of Antiquities, Factum Foundation partnered with the University of Basel to develop a project dedicated to promoting sustainable tourism and ensuring the continuous study and monitoring of the tombs of the Valley of the Kings in Luxor.

The Theban Necropolis Preservation Initiative (TNPI) initially recorded and rematerialized the tomb of Tutankhamun and is currently working on the facsimile of the tomb of Seti I.

The initiative also focused on the restoration of Hassan Fathy´s Stoppelaere House, situated at the entrance to the Valley of the Kings, and its rehabilitation as a training centre equipped with the technology to record heritage.The Centre will be operated by trained, local technicians.

The final and most ambitious phase involves the building of training workshops for local artisans to manufacture the high-resolution facsimiles of tombs.
High-resolution image viewer of the tomb of Tutankhamun
Virtual tour of the tomb of Seti I
3D video animation of the Sarcophagus of Seti I
Egypt Uncovered Sir John Soane´s Museum (October 11th, 2017 - Apr 15th, 2018)
Scanning Seti Antikenmuseum Basel (October 29th, 2017 - May 6th 2018)
The Authorized Facsimile of the Burial Chamber of Tutankhamun (since 2014)
2018 The Sarcophagus of Seti I - re-materialisation (article)
2017 Two hundred years in the life of the tomb (booklet)
2017 Scanning Seti (article)
2017 Scanning Seti (exhibition catalogue, in German)
2016 TNPI Progress (report)
2015 Nicholas Reeves´s The burial of Nefertiti (article)
2014 The Authorized Facsimile (exhibition catalogue)
2012 The Facsimile of the Burial chamber of Tutankhamun (report)
2009 TNPI report on the work completed (English / Arabic)
2002 Recording Seti (book)
2019 CBS News on the rematerialisation of the tomb of Seti I
2013 BBC report on the facsimile of the tomb of Tutankhamun
2013 Making the Tutankhamun facsimile
2013 The finalized Tutankhamun facsimile

The Theban Necropolis Preservation Initiative Summary


Facsimile of the Tomb of Seti I


Restoration of Stoppelaëre House


Seti Exhibition


Facsimile of the Tomb of Tutankhamun


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AWOL - The Ancient World Online: Bibliography of Herman te Velde
On 05/30/2019 01:03 PM, Chuck Jones wrote:
Bibliography of Herman te Velde Bibliography of Herman te Velde


1. Review of: J. Zandee, Death as an Enemy according to Ancient Egyptian Conceptions (Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1960), in: Vox Theologica 31 (1961), 185–186. → pdf
2. Seth, God of Confusion. A Study of his Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion. Probleme der Ägyptologie, Band 6 (Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1967).
   Reprinted (with some corrections) 1977.
   French translation: Seth, ou la divine confusion. Une étude de son rôle dans la mythologie et la religion égyptiennes. Traduction française par Christian Bégaint (Nîmes, Association du Gard, 2011 [privately printed]).
→ pdf
3. "The Egyptian God Seth as a Trickster", in: JARCE 7 (1968), 37–40. → pdf
4. "The God Heka in Egyptian Theology", in: JEOL 21 (1969–1970), 175–186. → pdf
5. "The Egyptian God Seth as a Trickster", in: Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Congress of Orientalists, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 13th–19th August 1967 (Wiesbaden 1971), 50–51.
6. De Goede Dag der Oude Egyptenaren. Openbare les gegeven bij de aanvaarding van het ambt van gewoon lector in de Egyptische taal- en letterkunde aan de Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen op dinsdag 7 december 1971 (Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1971). → pdf
7. "Some Remarks on the Structure of Egyptian Divine Triads", in: JEA 57 (1971), 180–186. → pdf
8. "De zwaluw op de voorsteven van de oud-egyptische zonneboot", in: Babbels over en uit het Egyptologisch Instituut en het Instituut voor Semitistiek en Archeologie van het Nabije Oosten der Rijksuniversiteit Groningen ([Groningen] 1971), 51–58. → pdf
9. "The Swallow as Herald of Dawn in Ancient Egypt", in: Ex Orbe Religionum. Studia Geo Widengren XXIV Mense Apr. MCMLXXII quo die lustra tredecim feliciter explevit oblata ab collegis, discipulis, amicis, collegae magistro amico congratulatibus, Vol. I (Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1972), 26–31. → pdf
10. Review of: E. Hornung, Der Eine und die Vielen. Ägyptische Gottesvorstellungen (Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1971), in: Nederlands Theologisch Tijdschrift 26 (1972), 72–74. → pdf
11. "Egyptologisch veldwerk van de Universiteit van Pennsylvania te Dra Aboe'l Naga", in: Phœnix 19 (1973), 219–230. → pdf
12. "Dämonen", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. I, Lief. 7. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1974), 980–984. → pdf
13. "In Memoriam Dr. Cazemier", in: Phœnix 21 (1975), 3–4. → pdf
14. "Lofzegging en dankbaarheid in Oud-Egyptische zonneliederen", in: Gratias agimus. Opstellen over danken en loven, aangeboden aan Prof. Dr. W.F. Dankbaar (Groningen 1975), 130–134. → pdf
15. "Erntezeremonien", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. II, Lief. 1. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1975), 1–4. → pdf
16. "Geb", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. II, Lief. 3. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1976), 427–429. → pdf
17. "Horus und Seth", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. III, Lief. 1. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1977), 25–27. → pdf
18. "Horus imi-schenut", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. III, Lief. 1. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1977), 47–48. → pdf
19. "The Theme of the Separation of Heaven and Earth in Egyptian Mythology", in: Studia Aegyptiaca III (Budapest, 1977), 161–170. → pdf
20. "Iunmutef", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. III, Lief. 2. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1978), 212–213. → pdf
21. Review of: Christine Seeber, Untersuchungen zur Darstellung des Totengerichts im Alten Ägypten. MÄS 20 (München 1976), in: CdÉ 53 No. 106 (1978), 267–270. → pdf
22. "A Few Remarks upon the Religious Significance of Animals in Ancient Egypt", in: Numen 27 (1980), 76–82. → pdf
23. "Mittler", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. IV, Lief. 2. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1980), 162–163. → pdf
24. "Mut", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. IV, Lief. 2. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1980), 246–248. → pdf
25. "Towards a Minimal Definition of the Goddess Mut", in: JEOL 26 (1979–1980), 3–9. → pdf
26. "Ptah", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. IV, Lief. 8. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1982), 1177–1180. → pdf
27. "The Cat as Sacred Animal of the Goddess Mut", in: Studies in Egyptian Religion dedicated to Professor Jan Zandee (Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1982), 127–137. → pdf
28. "Commemoration in Ancient Egypt", in: Visible Religion. Annual for Religious Iconography I: Commemorative Figures. Papers presented to Dr Th. P. van Baaren on the occasion of his seventieth birthday, May 13, 1982 (Leiden 1981), 135–153. → pdf
29. "Some Aspects of the God Shu", in: JEOL 27 (1981–1982), 23–28. → pdf
30. "Van bies tot boekrol: Papyrus en Egypte", in: Maandblad Kerk en Wereld (Februari 1983), 3.
31. "De Zegeningen van Ptah-Tatenen. Een Egyptische koningsinscriptie uit de 13e eeuw v. Chr.", in: Schrijvend Verleden. Documenten uit het Oude Nabije Oosten vertaald en toegelicht. Uitgegeven door K.R. Veenhof. MVEOL [24] (Leiden/Zutphen, 1983), 355–360. → pdf
32. "Schu", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. V, Lief. 5. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1984), 735–737. → pdf
33. "Seth", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. V, Lief. 6. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1982), 908–911. → pdf
34. "Relations and Conflicts between Egyptian Gods, particularly in the Divine Ennead of Heliopolis", in: Struggles of Gods. Papers of the Groningen Work Group for the Study of the History of Religions, edited by H.G. Kippenberg in association with H.J.W. Drijvers and Y. Kuiper (Berlin/New York/Amsterdam, 1984), 239–257. → pdf
35. "Persoonlijke devotie in het oude Egypte", in: Eender en Anders. Tentoonstelling ter viering van het vijftigjarig bestaan van het Allard Pierson Museum (Amsterdam, 1984), 119–123. → pdf
36. "Frankfort and Religious Symbols", in: Neue Zeitschrift für Systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie 27 (1985), 111–122. → pdf
37. "Typhon", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. VI, Lief. 6. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1985), 816–817. → pdf
38. "Mut, the Eye of Re", in: Fourth International Congress of Egyptology, Munich 26 August – 1 September 1985, herausgegeben von Sylvia Schoske (München, 1985), 250.
39. "Scribes and Literacy in Ancient Egypt", in: Scripta Signa Vocis. Studies about Scripts, Scriptures, Scribes and Languages in the Near East, presented to J.H. Hospers by his pupils, colleagues and friends. Edited by H.L.J. Vanstiphout, K. Jongeling, F. Leemhuis and G.J. Reinink (Groningen, 1986), 253–264. → pdf
40. "Egyptian Hieroglyphs as Signs, Symbols and Metaphors", in: Visible Religion. Annual for Religious Iconography IV–V (1985–1986): Approaches to Iconology (Leiden 1986), 63–72. → pdf
41. "Zeremonialbart", in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. VI, Lief. 9. Herausgegeben von Wolfgang Helck und Wolfhart Westendorf (Wiesbaden, 1986), 1396–1397. → pdf
42. "Funerary Mythology", in: Mummies & Magic. The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt. Edited by Sue D'Auria, Peter Lacovara, Catharine H. Roehrig (Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, 1988), 27–37. → pdf
43. "Mut, the Eye of Re", in: Akten des Vierten Internationalen Ägyptologen Kongresses, München 1985, Band 3 = BSAK 3 (Hamburg 1988), 395–403. → pdf
44. "Some Remarks on the Mysterious Language of the Baboons", in: Funerary Symbols and Religion. Essays dedicated to Professor M.S.H.G. Heerma van Voss on the occasion of his retirement from the Chair of the History of Ancient Religions at the University of Amsterdam. Edited by J.H. Kamstra, H. Milde, K. Wagtendonk (Kampen 1988), 129–101. → pdf
45. "Egyptian Hieroglyphs as Linguistic Signs and Metalinguistic Informants", in: Visible Religion. Annual for Religious Iconography VI [1987] (Leiden 1988), 169–179. → pdf
46. "Some Remarks on the Concept 'Person' in the Ancient Egyptian Culture", in: Concepts of Person in Religion and Thought. Edited by H.G. Kippenberg, Y.B. Kuiper, A.F. Sanders (Berlin/New York 1990), 83–101. → pdf
47. "Some Egyptian Deities and their Piggishness", in: Sesto Congresso Internazionale di Egittologia/Sixth International Congress of Egyptology, Turin, 1st–8th September 1991. Abstracts of Papers (Turin 1991), 404–405.
48. "Kulturkritik und Religionsreform im Alten Ägypten nach Gerardus van der Leeuw", in: Religionswissenschaft und Kulturkritik. Beiträge zur Konferenz 'The History of Religions and Critique of Culture in the Days of Gerardus van der Leeuw (1890–1950)'. Herausgegeben von Hans G. Kippenberg und Brigitte Luchesi (Marburg 1991), 93–99. → pdf
49. "Over wereldbeeld en ruimtebegrip der oude Egyptenaren", in: Groniek. Historisch Tijdschrift 112–113 (1991), 8–22. → pdf
50. "Some Egyptian Deities and their Piggishness", in: Studia Aegyptiaca XIV: The Intellectual Heritage of Egypt. Studies presented to Laszlo Kakosy by friends and colleagues on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Edited by Ulrich Luft (Budapest 1992), 571–578. → pdf
51a. "De Oud-egyptische levensbeschouwing en funeraire mythologie", in: De horizon van het Westen. De dodencultus in het oude Egypte. Uitgave bij de Egyptische collectie in het Volkenkundig Museum 'Gerardus van der Leeuw' te Groningen (Groningen, 1993), 8–10.
51b. "Mummies en mummificatie in het oude Egypte" (with Liesbeth Grotenhuis), in: idem, 46–48.
51c. "Het verhaal van de Groninger mummie" (under pseudonym 'Janus'), in: idem, 75–77.
52. "Theology, Priests, and Worship in Ancient Egypt", in: Jack M. Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, Vol. III (New York, 1995), 1731–1735, 1740–1745, 1747–1749.
   Reprinted: Peabody, MA, 2001.
→ pdf
53. "The Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt" (with Jacobus van Dijk), in: Jack M. Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, Vol. III (New York, 1995), 1736–1740.
   Reprinted: Peabody, MA, 2001.
→ pdf
54. "The End of a Religious Tradition: the Case of Egypt", in: C.J. Eyre (ed.), Seventh International Congress of Egyptologists, Cambridge 3–9 September 1995. Abstracts of Papers (Oxford 1995), 192–193.
55. "Het oude Egypte", in: De wereld van Papyrus: Egypte in stripverhaal. – Volkenkundig Museum 'Gerardus van der Leeuw' (Groningen, [1995]), 8–10. → pdf
56a. "Bastet", in: K. van der Toorn, B. Becking, P.W. van der Horst (eds.), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (Leiden/New York/Köln, Brill, 1995), 312–315.
   Second edition, extensively revised (Leiden/Boston/Köln, Brill - Grand Rapids, Michigan/Cambridge, UK, W.B. Eerdmans, 1999), 164–165.
→ pdf
56b. "Bes", in: idem, 330–331.
   Second edition, 173.
→ pdf
56c. "Khonsu", in: idem, 903.
   Second edition, 481.
→ pdf
56d. "Nile", in: idem, 1179–1180.
   Second edition, 626–627.
→ pdf
57. "Op reis naar het paradijs van de oude Egyptenaren", in: Meander. Reizen op schrift nr. 11 (Oktober 1996), 14–16. → pdf
58. "Harry Mulisch en zijn 'De Ontdekking van de Hemel'", in: Goffe Jensma & Yme Kuiper (red.), De god van Nederland is de beste. Elf opstellen over religie in de moderne Nederlandse literatuur (Kampen, Kok Agora, 1997), 156–168. → pdf
59. Het einde van de Oudegyptische religieuze traditie. Rede uitgesproken bij het afscheid als hoogleraar Egyptologie bij de Faculteit der Letteren en hoogleraar Godsdienstgeschiedenis van het Oude Egypte bij de Faculteit der Godgeleerdheid en Godsdienstwetenschap van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen op dinsdag 4 november 1997 (Groningen [1998]). → pdf
60. "Mut and Other Ancient Egyptian Goddesses", in: Jacke Phillips et al. (ed.), Ancient Egypt, the Aegean, and the Near East: Studies in Honour of Martha Rhoads Bell, Vol. I (San Antonio, Texas, 1998), 455–462. → pdf
61. "Mut", in: D. B. Redford (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt Vol. 2 (New York, 2001), 454–455.
   Reprinted in: D. B. Redford (ed.), The Ancient Gods Speak. A Guide to Egyptian Religion (Oxford/New York, 2002), 237–239. This title reissued in paperback as The Oxford Guide to Egyptian Mythology (Oxford/New York, 2003).
→ pdf
62. "Seth", in: D. B. Redford (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt Vol. 3 (New York, 2001), 269–271.
   Reprinted in: D. B. Redford (ed.), The Ancient Gods Speak. A Guide to Egyptian Religion (Oxford/New York, 2002), 309–311. This title reissued in paperback as The Oxford Guide to Egyptian Mythology (Oxford/New York, 2003).
→ pdf
63a. "Het oude Egypte en de Oudegyptische literatuur", in: Schrift 197 (oktober 2001), 131–133.
63b. "De verwantschap van Oudegyptische en bijbelse teksten", in: idem, 135–138.
64. "The History of the Study of Ancient Egyptian Religion and its Future", in: Zahi Hawass (ed.), Egyptology at the Dawn of the twenty-first Century. Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, Cairo, 2000 (Cairo/New York 2002), 42–47. → pdf
65. "De symboliek van apen en bavianen in de Oud-Egyptische cultuur en religie", in: Phœnix 48/1 (2002), 25–45. → pdf
66. "Looking at the Condemning Heart of 1 John 3, 18–20 through the Eyes of an Ancient Egyptian", in: A. Hilhorst and G.H. van Kooten (ed.), The Wisdom of the Egyptians. Jewish, Early Christian, and Gnostic Essays in Honour of Gerard P. Luttikhuizen. Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, 59 (Leiden, 2005), 217–225.
67. "Human Sacrifice in Ancient Egypt", in: Jan N. Bremmer (ed.), The Strange World of Human Sacrifice. Studies in the History and Anthropology of Religion, 1 (Leuven/Paris/Dudley, Peeters, 2007), 127–134.
68. Review of: J. Assmann, Thomas Mann und Ägypten. Mythos und Monotheismus in den Josephsromanen (München, C.H. Beck, 2006), and idem, Monotheismus und die Sprache der Gewalt, Wiener Vorlesungen Bd. 116 (Wien, Picus Verlag, 2006), in: Nexus 48 (2007), 195–198. → pdf
69. "The Goddess Mut and the Vulture", in: Sue H. D'Auria (ed.), Servant of Mut. Studies in Honor of Richard A. Fazzini. Probleme der Ägyptologie, 28 (Leiden/Boston, 2008), 242–245. → pdf
70. "The Inscriptions: Transcription, Translation, and Commentary" (with Jean-Claude Goyon and Jacobus van Dijk), in: Richard A. Fazzini and Jacobus van Dijk (eds.), The First Pylon of the Mut Temple, South Karnak: Architecture, Decoration, Inscriptions. The Brooklyn Museum Expedition to the Precinct of Mut at South Karnak. OLA 236 (Leuven/Paris/Bristol CT, 2015), 19–50.


"Een klassiek egyptoloog is allergisch voor 'alles met piramiden'. Prof. dr. Herman te Velde, schriftgeleerde" [door Jan Fred van Wijnen], in: Vrij Nederland, 57e jrg. nr. 50, 14 dec. 1996, 18–20. → pdf
"'Hé, daar is Seth'. Hoogleraar egyptologie Herman te Velde neemt afscheid" [door John Hermse], in: UK - Universiteitskrant Groningen, 26e jrg. nr. 9, 30 okt. 1997, 11. → pdf


BiOr Bibliotheca Orientalis
BSAK Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur. Beihefte
CdÉ Chronique d'Égypte
JARCE Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt
JEA Journal of Egyptian Archaeology
JEOL Jaarbericht Ex Oriente Lux
MVEOL Mededelingen en Verhandelingen Ex Oriente Lux
OLA Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta

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Wednesday, May 29, 2019

What are Some of Egypt's Governorates Famous For?

By Muhammed Aladdin

At first, for administrative purposes, Egypt was divided into 27 governorates. However, with time, each of these provinces went on to develop its own identity.

We Egyptians are a proud folk and we make sure to express this in every way possible. So, whether an Egyptian is from Upper Egypt, the Nile Delta, Sinai, or Cairo, they are proud of their regional identity.

Some are famous for industry, others for agriculture, and a few for monuments, each governorate has one thing it is best known for. Here is a list for some of these.

Port Said – Clothes

Considered to be one of Egypt's most famous ports, Port Said is well-known for its high-quality clothes. It is a commercial province filled to the brim with markets, from the main streets to the tiniest of alleyways.

Aswan – Dates

Well, of course Aswan is highly-renowned for its Pharaonic monuments. However, we thought of something different that not many people know about. Aswan is one of the main producers of Egyptian dates, with colossal markets that provide the fruit to Egypt and the world.

Marsa Matrouh – Beaches

The northern coast of Egypt overlooking the Mediterranean Sea has plenty of beautiful beaches, but perhaps the place with some of the most beautiful beaches in the world is Marsa Matruh. From El Gharam to Cleopatra beaches, Marsa Matruh is a piece of heaven on earth.

Bani Suef – Pharaonic heritage

Not so many people know about this as well, but Bani Suef is teemed with ancient Egyptian treasures. The governorate is home to the second oldest pyramid in Egypt, the Medom Pyramid, and many other lesser-known monuments.

Damietta – Wood

It is known all over Egypt that the most elegant furniture is carved in Damietta, but we never ask why. Damietta is one of the top producers of wood in Egypt. In addition, it is famous for its people's craftsmanship.

Kafr El Sheikh – Cotton

The Egyptian Nile Delta is composed of millions of acres of fertile land that produce food and many other important crops. However, when it comes to cotton, and its industry, Kafr El Sheikh takes top spot.

Luxor – Spices

Some of the best, most rare spices in the whole world could be found in Luxor's many souqs and traditional markets.

Ismailia – Mango

Egyptian mangos have a worldwide reputation of being an incomparable tropical delicacy. The 'fruit of the Gods' as the Indians call it did not originate in Egypt, but came to us from Sri Lanka. The mango tree found home in the rich soil of Ismailia, and the rest was history.

Alexandria – Shipbuilding

The northern city of Alexandria has more shipyards than one could possibl imagine. There is a whole district in Alexandria dedicated to shipbuilding covering an area of 35,000 square metres from the Al-Anfoushi Cultural Palace to the Sea Scouts Club.

Cairo – Nile

I could never imagine Cairo without its luscious Nile, bringing water all the way from Aswan to quench the capital's thirst. It is one of our blessings, and we should exert more effort in cleaning its waters.

WE SAID THIS: What do you think? Do you agree with our list? Let us know in the comments below.

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For the rams .. Clashes between the Egyptian police and the people of a village in Luxor during their evacuation - International News

A bit hard to read, but disturbing nevertheless.

For the rams .. Clashes between the Egyptian police and the people of a village in Luxor during their evacuation

Abdul Karim Salim - Cairo

A large number of Egyptian police stormed the Naga Abu Asaba area in the southern province of Luxor early on Tuesday to evacuate their homes in response to a presidential decision to expropriate properties in the area.

Police used tear gas to evacuate the area. The area was seen as a gap between citizens and police, eyewitnesses and videotaped media outlets reported. Police also arrested scores of residents of the area who refused to leave their homes.

Residents from the city of Luxor, the world's richest in ancient Egyptian antiquities, told Al-Jazeera Net that the residents had asked for an ultimatum to evacuate their homes for Eid al-Fitr after days.

A few days ago, the deputies of the Luxor parliament held the demands of the people to the officials, led by the governor of Luxor, who showed understanding of the demands of the population before the police surprised them by the attack.

The Directorate of Survey in Luxor started earlier this month procedures for the implementation of Presidential Decree No. 201 of 2018 on the project of the expropriation of overlapping properties that impede the completion of the discovery of the road Alkabash archaeological Karnak historical area, which belongs to nearly 130 houses in Naja Abu Asaba.

The presidential decree stipulated that the project of expropriation of overlapping properties that impede the completion of the detection of the route of the rams road and its prohibition in the city of Luxor with an area of ​​(1941.89 meters) should be considered a public benefit.

The local surveying authority has been given until the end of this month to challenge their expropriation, after the Directorate announced a list of the real estate owners for whom the decision was made since 15 April.

The announcement period ends mid-June, beginning with the appeals phase of ownership from 15 to 29 of the same month, and is supposed to begin after the phase of payment of compensation and termination of expropriation procedures, in preparation for the implementation of the decisions of removal.

Attempts failed
MP Luxor said that he met with the governor of Luxor, and conveyed to him the demands of the people to postpone the process of evacuation and increase the compensation provided to them.

He stressed in press statements that his meetings with officials reached a study of the demands of the people by the concerned authorities, pointing out that the solutions expected will be satisfactory to all parties in such a way that ensures the continuation of the project of detecting the path of the rams without harm to the citizens.

Pharaonic magic
For its part, the Ministry of Antiquities raced for the completion of the project of "Pharaonic Magic Historical" in Luxor province to revive the path of the Pharaonic Kebab, the link between the temples of Luxor and Karnak length of 2700 meters, and on both sides statues of Pharaonic rams,

The Ministry of Antiquities began the steps of the project with the beginning of the holy month of Ramadan, and the ministry set the date of opening the road Kabbash by the end of this year, after providing the road cameras surveillance and a complete system to secure the tourist delegations.

The government is counting on this route to change the shape of the tourist map in Luxor.

The head of the city of Luxor, Ayman al-Sharif, said that the opening of the road of al-Qarab al-Pharaonic was a major event, and it worked after a break several years ago, and is considered a major breakthrough in the archaeological sector in Egypt.

He said in a press statement that it is considered the largest and largest walk of history dating back to the Pharaonic times in the world, and helps attract the attention of the entire world to Egypt and the province of Luxor, adding that the project will transform the city of Luxor to the largest open world museum.

Karnak Temple, one of the most important Egyptian and international monuments (the island)

It was an ancient Egyptian celebration that was held annually in the capital of ancient Egypt in Taiba (Luxor) during the reign of the modern Pharaonic state and the other three thousand years ago.

In the ceremony, the statues of the goddesses represented in the Holy Trinity by the ancient Egyptians, "Amun, Mut and their son Khonsu", are hidden from their sight in their holy boats in a large ceremonial procession, from the temple of Amun in Karnak to the Temple of Luxor, on a journey of more than two kilometers .

What is highlighted in this weather is the meeting of Amun Ra of Karnak with Amoun of Luxor. The so-called "renewal of birth" is the main theme of the Opat ceremony, and usually includes a celebration of the re-coronation of the king.

The celebrations include singing and taking statues of goddesses through the rams' road linking the two temples, and the statues stop in the small temples that were built specially on their way.

These temples were filled during the celebration of the offerings of the people to the worshipers, and to the priests present for the rituals. At the end of the celebrations, the sacred boats were returning to Karnak.

In the late celebrations of ancient Egypt, statues between Karnak and Luxor were transported by boat in the river and not through the rams.

The Al-Kabbash road is 2,700 meters long and features 1058 statues on both sides of Amun Ra and the Sphinx being restored.

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