Hawk and hippopotamus are powerful metaphors, and in the
dialectics of their strife they reveal a much more complex
character than the commonly named “chaos versus order”.
Hippopotamus, as an amphibious being, represents chaos and
the hawk, royal and uranic, represents order (mAat). They
stand for water and air, chaos and order, red (ḏsrt) and black
(kmt), colors of the desert and of the valley ground. Their
opposition appears now as a primeval rivalry, since it existed
prior to Egyptian history and survived after it was no more.
Symbols do not vanish, for they speak of the...
Michael E. (1992) Braudel's Temporal Rhythms and Chronology Theory in
Archaeology. In Annales, Archaeology, and Ethnohistory, edited by A.
Bernard Knapp, pp. 23-34. Cambridge University Press, New York.
ancient Egypt, the successive risings or transits of stars in the night
or twilight sky were used to tell the hours of the night. These stars
whose yearly period of invisibility was then close to seventy days are
today termed as decanal since their heliacal
rising occurred at ten days interval each. Their hieroglyphic names
appear on the interior lid of wooden sarcophagi, on the external surface
of water clocks, on the ceiling of temples and tombs dating from the
First Intermediate Period to the Roman era. Every one of these vestiges
makes up an archaeological database whose completion...
The funerary papyrus BN 149 has long been known to contain mainly a Demotic translation of the
Book of the Dead, chapter 125. Recently, its first section was identified as a translation of a composition
otherwise sometimes associated with the so-called ‘Book of Traversing Eternity’. Still, the description
of a vignette and a short text inserted into chapter 125 have, up to now, defied identification. It is
shown here that the latter is a Demotic translation of chapter 128 of the Book of the Dead, with
substantial omissions, which are probably the work of a redactor who wished to fit the...