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Sunday, September 30, 2018

Meet the PLU Valley of the Kings Project Director Don Ryan - Nile Scribes

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Meet the PLU Valley of the Kings Project Director Don Ryan

Posted by thenilescribes <http://nilescribes.org/author/thenilescribes/>on September 29, 2018
<http://nilescribes.org/2018/09/29/meet-don-ryan/>


About Meet an Egyptologist

This *Nile Scribes *series enables our readers to learn more about Egyptologists from around the
world. From questions about their life and their career, we also explore their research interests
and perspectives on the field of Egyptology. We want to use this series to help strengthen the
public's awareness of the Egyptological community, and to illustrate the varied careers and on-going
research projects within our discipline. This week we interviewed *Dr. Don Ryan *about his career.


Who is Dr. Donald P. Ryan?

Dr. Donald P. Ryan earned his PhD in Archaeology from The Union Institute and now serves as a
Faculty Fellow in the Humanities at Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Washington and Director
of the PLU Valley of the Kings Project. He is also the author of numerous popular publications on
ancient Egypt including, /Beneath the Sands of Egypt
<https://www.amazon.ca/Beneath-Sands-Egypt-Unconventional-Archaeologist-ebook/dp/B003P2WEUY/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1538141124&sr=8-1&keywords=beneath+the+sands+of+egypt+ryan>/,
/Ancient Egypt on Five Deben a Day
<https://www.amazon.ca/Ancient-Egypt-Five-Deben-Day/dp/0500251487/ref=sr_1_1?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1538141145&sr=8-1&keywords=ryan+ancient+egypt+deben+a+day>/,
and /Ancient Egypt: The Basics
<https://www.amazon.ca/Ancient-Egypt-Donald-P-Ryan-ebook/dp/B01JSIQJCM/ref=sr_1_1?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1538141163&sr=1-1&keywords=ryan+ancient+egypt+basics>./

Don Ryan examining the face of a coffin found in KV 60 (photo: Don Ryan)
<http://nilescribes.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/don-ryan-valley-kings.jpg>Don Ryan examining the
face of a coffin found in KV 60 (photo: Don Ryan)


Nile Scribes: How did you become interested in ancient Egypt?

*Don Ryan:* As a child I was obsessed with dinosaurs and other prehistoric life and that led to a
broader interest in the past including archaeology. I was a precocious and voracious reader and
ancient Egypt caught my interest early on. National Geographic Magazine had articles about various
discoveries and there were current reports about the saving of the monuments about to be flooded as
a result of the Aswan dam (e.g. Abu Simbel). The local library had the three-volume set of Howard
Carter's "Tomb of Tutankhamun" and I read every page of it. I drifted a bit away from the subject as
a teen when I became a fanatical mountain climber, but my interest in Egyptology was rekindled when
the traveling Tut exhibit came to Seattle when I was a college student. I had been studying
political science and international relations but arranged for a tutorial in ancient Egyptian
history with one of my professors. Afterwards I switched my focus to archaeology during graduate school.


NS: What are some of your research interests concerning Egypt?

*DR:* My areas of interest include Egyptian archaeology, history of archaeology (especially in Egypt
and the Near East), history of world exploration, ancient technology, and the cultural influences of
the past on the present. Some of my first research was on ancient Egyptian cordage, i.e. "old rope,"
which was a simple but absolutely essential technology and barely studied. I've also enjoyed
investigating excavation and exploration notes from some of our earlier archaeological predecessors.
In at least one case, that of the oft-maligned Italian explorer Giovanni Belzoni, my research
clearly demonstrates that he was ahead of his time and could be considered a "proto-archaeologist."
In terms of other skills, I have a background in mountaineering and occasionally I'm able to apply
those skills to work in remote, extreme, or dangerous environments.

Don Ryan and his Egyptian team during his 2017 field season (photo: Don Ryan)
<http://nilescribes.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/valley-kings-don-ryan-team-2017.jpg>Don Ryan and
his Egyptian team during his 2017 field season (photo: Don Ryan)


NS: Do you have research interests in any other countries?

*DR:* I have a secondary interest in the archaeology of Polynesia. I have visited many islands in
the Pacific and have conducted field work documenting petroglyphs in Hawai'i, and have done research
on Easter Island stone sculpture. I worked with my boyhood hero, Thor Heyerdahl, during the last
seven years of his life and it was a fantastic experience. Heyerdahl was a national hero in Norway
and became an international spokesman for world peace and environmental issues. Apart from his
voyages on experimental ancient watercraft for which he became famous, he led formal archaeological
expeditions to such places as Easter Island, the Galapagos Islands, Peru and the Maldive Islands.
The two of us directed a project excavating a group of enigmatic stone structures on Tenerife in the
Canary Islands. I'm still involved with his work and am proudly a Research Associate at the
/Kon-Tiki Museum/in Oslo, Norway.


NS: What do you think are some essential skills for a career in Egyptology?

*DR:* A broad liberal arts education and a fondness for ancient and modern languages are
important. I always advise my undergraduate students who are interested in an Egyptological career
to do two things:

* Attend a conference (such as that put on annually by ARCE) to experience what professionals and
advanced students actually discuss, as opposed to the endless glamour and adventure portrayed on
television and in many popular books. It is also a great way to meet one's potential professors
and fellow students.
* Attend an archaeological field school to see if that aspect is appealing. If one doesn't like
getting dirty and living in simple and close conditions, then working with objects and texts
might be a better option.

Anyone studying Egyptology with the goal of making it their career should fully understand that
there are few jobs and the competition for them is very tough. There are a lot of bright and
enthusiastic Egyptology students out there with big dreams but there are also a lot of PhDs whose
dreams have yet to be fulfilled. Having other skills that are more employable is a good back-up
strategy. A diverse interdisciplinary background, and the flexibility to adapt is very helpful,
especially if one is involved in teaching. For example, apart from Egyptology and Archaeology, I've
taught courses on Ancient Near East, Cultural Anthropology, Physical Anthropology, World Geography,
Middle Eastern History, Critical Thinking, History of Exploration, and writing seminars.

The Valley of the Kings viewed from above (photo: Don Ryan)
<http://nilescribes.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/valley-of-the-kings.jpg>The Valley of the Kings
viewed from above (photo: Don Ryan)


NS: Where have you worked in Egypt?

*DR:* My first trip to Egypt was with one of my professors who was doing a survey of prehistoric
sites at the southwest edge of the Fayyum. It was amazing to see scatters of stone tools and bones
scattered across the desert surface. I later spent some time on projects in the north Fayyum and in
the Delta. My own project over the last several years has focused on the undecorated tombs in the
Valley of the Kings.

Every field season has its special moments, both good and bad, but my very first in the Valley of
the Kings was especially memorable as we unexpectedly rediscovered KV 60 on our first day in less
than half an hour using a simple broom. (Zahi Hawass has since concluded that the mummy we
encountered within is that of Hatshepsut.) Later that same season, we were looking for KV 21 which
was buried quite deeply. It was fun to learn that we were on the right track when we uncovered a big
red number "21" painted on a cut in the rock. It was part of the numbering system initiated by John
Gardner Wilkinson in 1827.

The steps leading down into KV 60 as rediscovered by the Pacific Lutheran University Valley of the
Kings Project (photo: Don Ryan)
<http://nilescribes.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/steps-tomb-kv60-valley-kings.jpg>The steps
leading down into KV 60 as rediscovered by the Pacific Lutheran University Valley of the Kings
Project (photo: Don Ryan)


NS: What are you working on currently?

*DR:* My project in the Valley of the Kings continues, and a publication for that is in the works.
I've edited a couple of anthologies of nineteenth century poetry inspired by ancient Egypt and now
I'm assembling another which will include poems addressing other archaeological places. I also write
books for public consumption and I have a couple more of those in progress. I've also finished a
novel with an Egyptological theme which I hope will be available soon.


NS: What other discoveries do you think are waiting to be made in the Valley of the Kings?

*DR:* In 1817, Giovanni Belzoni was confident that he had found all there was to find in the Valley
of the Kings. And in 1912, Theodore Davis concluded "I fear the Valley of the Tombs is now
exhausted," yet ten years later, KV 62, the tomb of Tutankhamun, was discovered. I've re-excavated
several of the many neglected undecorated tombs in the Valley, as has a Swiss expedition, and each
is uniquely fascinating. And then there is KV 5, a known tomb which when revisited by the Theban
Mapping Project in 1995 was found to be massive, the enigmatic KV 63 embalming cache discovered by
Otto Schaden in 2005 and another new tomb, KV 64, uncovered by the Swiss in 2012. The Valley of the
Kings is full of surprises. It is by no means fully explored and one never knows what might turn up
next.

The three tombs which once contained the mummies of monkeys and other animals as rediscovered in
2017 (photo: Don Ryan)
<http://nilescribes.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/three-monkey-tombs-valley-kings.jpg>The three
tombs which once contained the mummies of monkeys and other animals as rediscovered in 2017 (photo:
Don Ryan)


NS: How has our familiarity with the more extravagant, royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings
inaccurately coloured our understanding of the cemetery?

*DR:* The tomb of Tutankhamun (KV 62) naturally will continue to attract a good deal of attention
from both scholars and the public and for good reason: its contents remain an incredible source of
Egyptological knowledge which still has not been fully studied nearly 100 years after the tomb's
discovery. There has been a tendency for Egyptologists to gravitate to the larger tombs with their
rich religious texts and art, but the few dozen, typically small, undecorated tombs scattered in
Valley likewise have significant stories to tell. Anyone buried in the Valley of the Kings was of
importance and some of these tombs belonged to royal relatives and favoured officials. And there are
even three tombs, which we recently rediscovered, which once held the mummies of monkeys and other
animals (royal pets?). The Valley also has a very interesting post-New Kingdom history, with some of
the smaller tombs being reused, particularly during the Twenty-Second Dynasty.


NS: Is there a site in Egypt you've never had the chance to visit that you'd really like to see?

*DR:* I've visited Egypt numerous times. I once asked my friend, Egyptologist Larry Berman, what his
favourite site is. His answer speaks for a lot of people: "Whichever one I happen to be visiting at
the moment!" I'm interested in seeing anything I haven't yet seen, and revisiting most that I
already have.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The *Nile Scribes* are grateful for Dr. Ryan's willingness to participate in our interview series.
If you have any questions for Dr. Ryan, you can contact him online at his website, or leave a
comment on the blog.


Follow Don Ryan

* Profile Page <https://www.plu.edu/humanities/staff/donald-ryan/> at Pacific Lutheran University
* Pacific Lutheran University Valley of the Kings Project blog <http://pluvk.blogspot.com/>
* Don Ryan's personal website <https://community.plu.edu/%7Eryandp/>

All images are courtesy of Donald P. Ryan/ Pacific Lutheran University Valley of the Kings Project.

--
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Egypt unearths 2 ancient sandstone paintings in Aswan - Xinhua | English.news.cn

http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-10/01/c_137504563.htm


Egypt unearths 2 ancient sandstone paintings in Aswan

/Source: Xinhua/|/2018-10-01 03:19:32/|/Editor: Li Xia/
<http://www.news.cn/mobile/xhxw/syzt/index.htm>
EGYPT-ASWAN-ANCIENT SANDSTONE PAINTINGS-DISCOVERY

The undated photo shows an ancient sandstone painting in Aswan, Egypt. Egyptian archaeologists have
discovered two ancient sandstone paintings in Upper Egypt's province of Aswan, Egyptian Ministry of
Antiquities said Sunday. (Xinhua)

CAIRO, Sept. 30 (Xinhua) -- Egyptian archaeologists have discovered two ancient sandstone paintings
in Upper Egypt's province of Aswan, Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities said Sunday.

This discovery was made by the Egyptian archaeological mission at the Kom Ombo Temple in Aswan.

According to Mostafa Waziri, head of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, the first painting
belongs to King Seti I of the 19th Dynasty, who ruled Egypt from 1290 to 1279 BC, while the other
one belongs to King Ptolemy IV who ruled Egypt from 221 to 204 BC.

The first painting is 2.3 meters long and 1 meter wide, while the other is 3.25 meters long and 1.15
meters wide. Both measure 30 cm thick, Waziri said.

The first painting was found broken into two pieces but the drawings and inscriptions were still in
good condition, he noted.

"The second one was found broken into several pieces but our restoration team at the ministry
repaired and assembled them," Waziri added.

The first painting shows King Seti I standing in front of ancient Egyptian gods Horus and Sobek,
with the sun above as a symbol of protection. As for the second, it portrays King Ptolemy IV, his
wife and Egyptian deities.

On Sept. 16, Egypt announced the discovery of a sandstone Sphinx statue during an excavation at the
Kom Ombo Temple.

Two days later, it revealed the discovery of a sandstone sarcophagus with a mummy inside near Aga
Khan Mausoleum on the west bank of Aswan.

Over past years, Egypt has witnessed several big archaeological discoveries, including pharaonic
tombs, statues, coffins, mummies, burial sites and funerary gardens.

--
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Saturday, September 29, 2018

The power of social media | In the Artifact Lab

https://www.penn.museum/sites/artifactlab/2018/09/29/the-power-of-social-media/
On 09/29/2018 11:07 AM, mollygleeson wrote:
> The power of social media
>
> By Jessica Byler
>
> The power of social media, which brings together so many people with diverse interests and
> knowledge, has helped in a conservation treatment! In a previous post
> <https://www.penn.museum/sites/artifactlab/2018/07/12/beaded-necklaces-complex-restringing/>, the
> restringing of a faience Egyptian broad collar (31-27-303
> <https://www.penn.museum/collections/object/121239>) was discussed. A couple of eagle-eyed readers
> pointed out that the falcon head terminals should face outwards, whereas our terminals are looking
> at each other. The falcons have been facing inwards for as long as we have had the piece, so what
> was going on?
>
> <http://www.penn.museum/sites/artifactlab/files/2018/09/collarAT1.jpg>
>
> 31-27-303, after the first restringing
>
> Almost immediately, Egyptian Section curator Jen Wegner got to work, digging in the Archives and
> looking at other collars, including beaded and gold collars as well as painted ones. In all of
> them, the falcons faced out, not in. Our terminals were on backwards!
>
> <http://www.penn.museum/sites/artifactlab/files/2018/09/examples-of-collars.jpg>
>
> King Tut's mask (left), Metropolitan Museum of Art broad collar, 26.8.102 (center), Old Kingdom
> Mereruka relief image (right)
>
> We have Alan Rowe's field notes from the excavation in 1930 (Coxe
> <https://www.penn.museum/sites/expedition/eckley-brinton-coxe-jr/> Expedition to Meydum) which
> shows how this happened. When the collar was excavated, the falcon head terminals were separate
> from, but in the same context as, the hundreds of barrel beads. The terminals and beads were drawn
> separately in the notes but were reconstructed by the time they were photographed.
>
> <http://www.penn.museum/sites/artifactlab/files/2018/09/collar-archives.jpg>
>
> Rowe's field register (left) and a field photo (right)
>
> Since 1930, the collar has been on display, gone out on loan, and published. No one had noticed
> (or had gone so far to comment on) the incorrect placement of the falcon head terminals. Because
> the collar was restrung for purely conservation reasons, the placement of each of the beads had
> been retained. Now that it has been pointed out, it was decided to switch the terminals to face
> outwards.
>
> Fortunately, I was able to switch the terminals without fully restringing the collar. First, the
> knots were unpicked from each side. Then, the thread was unstrung so that the top and bottom rows
> could be removed, which mostly released the terminals. Finally, two of the strings had to be cut.
> Once the terminals were removed, they could be swapped, and the collar restrung.
>
> The collar has a few more knots than before, but for the first time the falcon-headed terminals
> are facing the right way.
>
> <http://www.penn.museum/sites/artifactlab/files/2018/09/collarAT2.jpg>
>
> Broad collar after second restringing
>
> Thanks again to our attentive audience! A very special shout-out to our Egyptological colleagues,
> Tom Hardwick and Peter Lacovara, who pointed this out in the first place. Who knows, maybe someone
> reading this right now will contribute to a future mystery!
>


--
Sent from my Linux system.

Job Description - Text Writer Egyptologist Late Period and/or Graeco-Roman specialist (18001621)

https://hillintl.taleo.net/careersection/ex/jobdetail.ftl?job=18001621&tz=GMT%2B03%3A00


Job Description - Text Writer Egyptologist Late Period and/or Graeco-Roman specialist (18001621)


Job Description

Text Writer Egyptologist Late Period and/or Graeco-Roman specialist-(18001621)


Description

For more than four decades, owners have turned to Hill International to manage their largest and
most complex projects and programs.  We are proud to have participated in some of the most iconic
projects in the world.  With more than 10,000 projects valued in excess of $500 billion, we manage
all phases of the construction process from concept through completion. To minimize risk and
maximize results on your next project, turn to Hill International.  For more information on Hill,
please visit our website at www.hillintl.com <http://www.hillintl.com/>.
Hill International is seeking to employ for an ongoing multibillion, "state of the art" museum
project in Giza - Egypt.
*Text writer – Egyptologist Late Period and/or Graeco-Roman specialist (EG ROM GEM 2018)*
*Project:* Operation and Management Consultancy for the Grand Egyptian Museum.
*Project site*: Giza – Egypt
Late Period and/or Graeco-Roman specialist
The Egyptologist will be involved in but not limited to, the following tasks:

1.
Advising SCA employees in developing content and accurate artefact information for the LP/GR
2.
Advising SCA employees and exhibition designers in exhibition design workshops for the LP/GR
galleries
3.
Creating exhibition texts (in English) for the LP/GR and other Main Galleries
4.
Organising and leading workshops to help develop skills of SCA employees
5.
Creating templates and worksheets for SCA employees
6.
Following up, monitoring, reviewing and advising the SCA about content development outcomes
7.
Creating reports on weekly and monthly bases regarding their tasks


Qualifications

*Qualifications & Skills*

* University Degree in Archaeology or other related field
* Additional studies and experience in Egyptology
* Specialized on Late Period and/or Graeco-Roman Period
* Minimum 15 years of certified post-graduation experience in Archaeology, or in Egyptology, or in
Museum field.
* Previous experience in Museum Projects
* Excellent command of the English Language
* Excellent communication and computer skills

 Package: The Company offers a competitive remuneration package and possibilities of career
development within a dynamic working environment.

Hill is an equal opportunity employer Minorities/ Female/ Veterans/ Disabled employer offering
competitive compensation, excellent benefits and an exciting and challenging culture.


Primary Location

:EG-EG-Giza



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Tell us about a friend who might be interested in this job. All privacy rights will be
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©2016 Hill International, Inc. All rights reserved | Site Design and Development By | | For general
inquiries, call 800 283 4088
Equal Opportunity Employer/Minority/Female/Veteran/Disabled

Multimedia Solutions <http://www.multimediasolutions.com>Global Privacy Policy
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--
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A story of ignorance - Al Ahram Weekly

http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/News/25482.aspx


Heritage


A story of ignorance


What lessons can be learned from recent problems in the restoration of the golden mask of
ancient Egyptian boy-king Tutankhamun, asks Zahi Hawass


Zahi Hawass

The recent incorrect restoration of the golden mask of Tutankhamun raised many important issues that
should be discussed in order to find reasonable solutions. This will also demonstrate that Egypt is
more than capable of properly restoring its monuments and heritage, as has been done over the last
12 years, despite the attacks of those who criticise without suggesting appropriate solutions.

The spectacular golden mask of Tutankhamun represents an idealised portrait of the king.
Intrinsically beautiful due to the precious materials and masterful workmanship that went into its
creation, it was an essential item of the royal burial equipment, serving as an image that the soul
could enter and occupy during the afterlife if something happened to the body.

The artisans who crafted this masterpiece began by hammering together two thick sheets of gold,
thought by the ancient Egyptians to echo the flesh of the gods. They then shaped this metal into a
likeness of the king wearing the striped nemes headcloth of ancient Egypt and using inlays of
semi-precious stones and coloured glass to add colour and detail. The whites of the eyes were inlaid
with quartz, and obsidian was used for the pupils. Red paint was lightly brushed into the corners of
the eyes, subtly increasing their realism.

When British archaeologist Howard Carter first saw the mask in 1925, he discovered that it was stuck
onto the chest and head of the king's mummy. He tried to remove it but was unsuccessful because of
the resin that the embalmers had applied to the coffin. He then used knives heated over a fire to
detach the mask, damaging the mummy in the process. In spite of this checkered history, the golden
mask has since become an icon of ancient Egypt.

Last month, and after much media attention to the restoration problem, the Ministry of Antiquities
announced that the mask had been poorly restored. Epoxy resin should not have been used, it said,
and the techniques used had not followed accepted scientific practice.

The first rule in any restoration is documentation, including of an object's condition, previous
treatment, and any other relevant details. Then a written plan for the proposed restoration and the
materials and techniques to be used is drawn up, and finally the work is implemented. It is of the
utmost importance that a restorer does not work alone. All of these steps must be performed by an
archaeologist, a conservator and a chemist working together.

The restorer at the Cairo Museum who worked on the mask worked alone, and she did not know how the
mask was fashioned. The ancient Egyptians never used any adhesive materials in the construction of
an object. For example, the mask was made of two pieces: the head and the beard. The ancient
artisans made a hole on the bottom of the chin of the mask and another on the top of the beard. They
then prepared a thin piece of wood, or dowel, to hold the two pieces together. The only repair that
might be needed would be to replace this dowel if it deteriorated. If the conservators had known
this about the mask's construction, they would never have made a mistake in repairing it.

Ignorant people began to attack the Antiquities Ministry without proposing a solution. What I heard
from them on the television or read in the newspapers only indicated that they were after the job of
minister of antiquities. However, the position of minister cannot be taken by someone who is not
qualified. I found that the press had given the title of "Dr" to someone who did not have a PhD, and
another person was given the opportunity by experts in the ministry to speak to the press, even
though she does not have any expertise in archaeology. When the Malawi Museum in Upper Egypt was
damaged some years ago, the then minister did not want to appear on the scene. But this person did
go and became something of a heroine as a result.

It was wrong to give the mask's German conservator the opportunity to talk to the press. He should
have written a report to be submitted to the then minister, Mamdouh Al-Damati, and he should have
been allowed to stand beside the minister at the press conference if there were questions. However,
instead the German restorer incorrectly announced that Carter had brought the mask to the Egyptian
Museum in 1924, when in fact Carter first saw the mask in the tomb in 1925. This conservator may be
brilliant at restoration, but it was not his role to speak at the press conference.

The most important point that should have come out of the press conference was to admit that there
had been a problem and that the mask had been improperly repaired. It should have been stated that
the conservator who had made this mistake would be reprimanded. A second point that should have been
made was that the mask had not been destroyed or lost, and a final point should have been that it
would be restored in the proper fashion.

Egypt has many great conservators, and most foreign expeditions in Egypt employ their services. When
we needed to remove a very delicate fresco from the walls of the Coptic Museum to restore it, for
example, the American Research Centre in Egypt asked Lutfi Khaled to do the work, and he did a
wonderful job.

Unfortunately, the problem in the restoration of the mask of Tutankhamun was broadcast all over the
world and became a scandal to us as Egyptians. It was a scandal for those who are now in charge of
the country's antiquities. There should have been a team consisting of an Egyptologist, a restorer,
and a chemist to carry out the restoration of the mask, and every step should have been documented
by Egyptian and international television.

We need the world to understand that the problem of the restoration of Egypt's antiquities is one
that needs to be solved not by foreigners but by Egyptians.

--
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New Rankings Of The World's Fastest-Growing Tourism Destinations: Egypt is #1.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/ericrosen/2018/09/06/new-rankings-of-the-worlds-fastest-growing-tourism-destinations/#39dd85f257ea
New Rankings Of The World's Fastest-Growing Tourism Destinations
Eric Rosen <https://www.forbes.com/sites/ericrosen/>
Eric Rosen <https://www.forbes.com/sites/ericrosen/> Contributor i
Travel <https://www.forbes.com/travel>

*


The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) releases an annual report on global travel and
tourism, and the 2018 edition <https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284419876> has just come
out. The report looks at tourism trends around the world and, among other measures, tracks increases
and decreases in tourism activity across countries and regions. Here is what this year's report found.

In total, international tourism arrivals grew to just over 1.3 billion in 2017, a 6.8% from 2016.
That was the largest single-year percentage increase in this specific figure since 2009.

The overall global tourism numbers for 2017.UNWTO

The two regions with the largest growth were Africa, with 9%, and Europe, with 8%. What's stunning
about those numbers, though, is that Europe received over half the world's international tourism
arrivals, 671 million, while Africa received less than a tenth of that amount, just 63 million.

European travelers accounted for 48% of outbound tourism followed by those from Asia-Pacific, with
25% of the total, the Americas at 17%, the Middle East with 3%, Africa with 3%, and 4% not reporting
their origin.

International tourism spending was also up 5% globally and hit $1.34 billion. Nearly 40% of that
figure came from spending in Europe, followed by Asia-Pacific with 29% and the Americas with 24%.

Growth numbers by region.UNWTO

Who is spending all that money? The report found that Chinese outbound travelers spent nearly a
fifth of it – $258 billion – while U.S. travelers came in second, with $135 billion. The report also
noted that seven destinations ranked in the top 10 both in terms of arrival numbers and receipts
(spending).


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The main mode of transport for all these arrivals was by air, at 57%, followed by road at 37%, water
at 4% and rail with just 2%. Leisure accounted for 55% of visits while business came in at just 13%.
The other visits were either not specified, or for a variety of reasons like visiting relatives,
health needs, or religious observance.

Here were the destinations that saw the most growth in terms of year-over-year percentage increase
of visitors:

1. Egypt: 55.1%
2. Togo: 46.7%
3. Vietnam: 29.1%
4. Georgia: 27.9%
5. Palestine: 25.7%
6. Niue: 25.4%
7. Nepal: 24.8%
8. Israel: 24.6%
9. Northern Mariana Islands: 24.3%
10. Iceland and Turkey (tie): 24.1%

Egypt saw the greatest percentage increase year over year from 2016-2017.

Then, for contrast, here were the top 10 destinations in terms of overall visitor numbers for 2017:

1. France: 86.9 million
2. Spain: 81.8 million
3. United States: 75.9 million
4. China: 60.7 million
5. Italy: 58.3 million
6. Mexico: 39.3 million
7. United Kingdom: 37.7 million
8. Turkey: 37.6 million
9. Germany: 37.5 million
10. Thailand: 35.4 million

France topped the list in terms of overall visitor numbers.

Finally, here is the list of countries with the top spenders on outbound tourism:

1. China: $257.7 billion
2. United States: $135 billion
3. Germany: $89.1 billion
4. United Kingdom: $71.4 billion
5. France: $41.4 billion
6. Australia: $34.2 billion
7. Canada: $31.8 billion
8. Russian Federation: $31.1 billion
9. Republic of Korea: $30.6 billion
10. Italy: $27.7 billion

One final takeaway: four out of five tourists traveled within their own region. So as regions like
Asia and Africa further develop their tourism sectors and infrastructures, we should see their
numbers balloon in the coming years, both in terms of visits and spending.

People ask me how much time I spend on the road each year, and I reply that I am away from home over
half the time. The next question they invariably ask is: Does it get boring? My answer: Never. I
have been writing about luxury travel and news in the hotel and aviation indu...

MORE <https://www.forbes.com/sites/ericrosen/>

Eric Rosen is a travel and food writer from Los Angeles, California. Keep up with his latest travels
on Instagram @EricRosenLA <http://instagram.com/ericrosenla>.

--
Sent from my Linux system.

The Sacred Ibis debate: The first test of evolution

https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558


The Sacred Ibis debate: The first test of evolution

* Caitlin Curtis,
* Craig D. Millar,
* David M. Lambert

*


*



*




PLOS

* Published: September 27, 2018
* https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558

* Article <https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558>
* Authors <https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/authors?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558>
* Metrics <https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/metrics?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558>
* Comments <https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/comments?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558>
* Related Content
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/related?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558>

* Abstract <https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#abstract0>
* Introduction <https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#sec001>
* Mistaken identity: Ibis mummies were misidentified as "storks"
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#sec002>
* Opposing views within the French National Museum of Natural History: Cuvier and Lamarck
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#sec003>
* Cuvier performed the first test of evolution
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#sec004>
* Sacred Ibis mummies become the focus of evolutionary debate
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#sec005>
* The Great Debate
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#sec006>
* Conclusion <https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#sec007>
* Acknowledgments <https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#ack>
* References
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#references>

* Reader Comments (0)
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/comments?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558>
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* Figures <https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#>


Abstract

In 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte's army invaded Egypt, returning with many treasures including large
numbers of Sacred Ibis mummies. The ancient Egyptians revered the ibis and mummified literally
millions of them. The French naturalist Georges Cuvier used these mummies to challenge an emerging
idea of the time, namely Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's theory of evolution. Cuvier detected no measurable
differences between mummified Sacred Ibis and contemporary specimens of the same species.
Consequently, he argued that this was evidence for the "fixity of species." The "Sacred Ibis debate"
predates the so-called "Great Debate" between Cuvier and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and the publication
of Darwin's On the Origin of Species five decades later. Cuvier's views and his study had a profound
influence on the scientific and public perception of evolution, setting back the acceptance of
evolutionary theory in Europe for decades.


Figures

Fig 4
Fig 1
Fig 2
Fig 3
Fig 4
Fig 1
Fig 2
Fig 3

Citation: Curtis C, Millar CD, Lambert DM (2018) The Sacred Ibis debate: The first test of
evolution. PLoS Biol 16(9): e2005558. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558

Published: September 27, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Curtis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/>, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.

Funding: Human Frontier Science Program http://www.hfsp.org/ (grant number RGP0036/2011). The
funding was received by DML. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis,
decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Royal Society of New Zealand
https://royalsociety.org.nz/. The funding was received by DML. The funder had no role in study
design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Provenance: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed


Introduction

When Napoleon's army invaded Egypt in 1798, his soldiers collected many treasures. The most famous
of these was the Rosetta Stone discovered by a French soldier in 1799. This tablet comprised three
versions of a decree that eventually enabled the deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphics [1
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref001>].
Ironically, the stone was captured by the British at the French surrender of Alexandria and never
made it to French soil. It has been in the British Museum since 1802. Of almost equal fascination at
the time was the large number of animal mummies that were brought back to France as "spoils of war."
Many species, including cats, jackals, dogs, crocodiles, snakes, ibis, and other birds, as well as
human mummies, were described in exquisite detail in the Description de l'Égypte (1809–1829). Like
the Rosetta Stone, many of these mummies were deposited in museums.

These mummies captivated the imagination of the public. Numerous "unwrappings" of human and animal
mummies took place, including several ibis [2
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref002>,
3
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref003>].
The Egyptians mummified literally millions of these birds and stored them in vast underground
catacombs [2
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref002>].
In addition to the extensive military forces, the French invasion included a remarkable delegation
of more than 150 civilian intellectuals, called savants, including Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, who would
later become an important figure in the development of evolutionary thought. The savants established
the Egyptian Institute (Institut d'Égypte) and went on to painstakingly collect and document the
physical, natural, and cultural history of the region. The Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus)
mummies ignited a fierce debate about the reality of evolution between two of the giants of 19th
century natural history, Georges Cuvier and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (Fig 1
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio-2005558-g001>).
This debate preceded the "Great Debate" and occurred decades before the publication of the pivotal
works of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace on natural selection and evolution.

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Fig 1. The two central figures in the first test of evolution.

(A) Georges Cuvier (1769–1832) and (B) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829).

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g001 <https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g001>


Mistaken identity: Ibis mummies were misidentified as "storks"

In Egypt, animal mummies vastly outnumbered those of humans [4
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref004>].
The catacombs at Tuna el-Gebel in Egypt, for example, are estimated to contain 4 million Sacred Ibis
mummies [5
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref005>],
many of which are well preserved (Fig 2
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio-2005558-g002>).
Ancient Egyptians revered the Sacred Ibis as a manifestation of Thoth, the god of wisdom and
writing. Images of ibis were used in hieroglyphic writings and as amulets and statues representing
Thoth. From the Late Period onward (ca. 7th century BC), these birds were mummified as offerings to
Thoth. Generally, once killed, they were desiccated with salts and covered with oils and resins. The
wrapped birds were then typically sealed in large pottery vessels—sometimes two or more to a pot
(Fig 2
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio-2005558-g002>).
Others were placed in wooden coffins or covered with a layer of cartonnage (similar to
"papier-mâché") that was plastered and painted [4
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref004>].

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<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/figure/image?download&size=original&id=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g002>

Fig 2. Mummified Sacred Ibis.

(A) Empty and full pottery vessels from catacombs from Saqqara, Egypt (photo credit Sally Wasef),
(B) mummified Sacred Ibis wrapped in cloth (photo credit Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), (C)
a well-preserved example of an unwrapped Sacred Ibis mummy (the head and wings of the bird are
clearly visible), and (D) a mummified Sacred Ibis dipped in resin.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g002 <https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g002>

By the late 18th century, most scholars mistakenly believed that the Sacred Ibis mummies were
actually yellow-billed storks (then Tantalus ibis, now Mycteria ibis) [6
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref006>]
(Fig 3
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio-2005558-g003>).
This error is perhaps understandable given that Sacred Ibis populations were not present in Europe
at the time. Therefore, 18th century specimens of Sacred Ibis in Europe were limited to a few
unidentified birds in museums.

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<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/figure/image?download&size=original&id=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g003>

Fig 3. Stork and ibis.

(A) Yellow-billed stork (photo credit Becky Matsubara) and (B) Sacred Ibis (photo credit Christiaan
Kooyman).

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g003 <https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g003>


Opposing views within the French National Museum of Natural History: Cuvier and Lamarck

While Napoleon's Egyptian conquest included many prominent scientists, the French naturalist Georges
Cuvier chose to remain in Paris at the French National Museum of Natural History, where he would
later very publicly argue his opposition to evolution. At the time of the Egyptian conquest,
however, Cuvier was developing his principle of the "correlation of parts." Primarily, Cuvier
believed that an organism's parts were perfectly adapted and linked in such a way that any
modification to one of the parts would prevent the survival of the organism as a whole. The
correlation of parts was so pervasive and powerful that Cuvier believed it could be used to predict
the function of any particular part as well as its relationship to the organism as a whole. Using
this principle, Cuvier proclaimed to be able to predict the entire form of any organism from mere
fragments of bones or a few organs—including reconstructing entire skeletons of extinct creatures
from fossilized bones.

Furthermore, Cuvier's belief in the correlation of parts led him to argue for the "fixity of
species" or the idea that each species is based on an ideal form that cannot change over time [7
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref007>].
Though Cuvier was unyielding in his belief that species were unchanging and did not evolve, he
rightly argued that extinctions had been widespread throughout the Earth's geological history.
Cuvier recognized the existence of fossilized species for which no modern relative existed, a
revolutionary idea at the time. However, Cuvier rejected the idea that such fossilized remains could
have been the ancestors of living forms [8
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref008>].

Cuvier's idea of the "fixity of species" was in conflict with the views of Lamarck, his contemporary
at the museum. However, Lamarck's prestige and political influence was modest in comparison to
Cuvier's ever-increasing prominence, intellect, and showmanship. These attributes contributed to his
notoriety in the scientific and popular culture of the time. In contrast to the "fixity of species,"
Lamarck argued for a continuous slow transmutation of animal species over time (now known as
"phyletic gradualism") [9
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref009>].
In Lamarck's theory of transmutation (or species mutability), species would proceed up the "Great
Chain of Being" [10
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref010>]
from simple to complex, with humans at the pinnacle. Lamarck's Philosophie Zoologique [9
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref009>]—published
half a century before Darwin's On the Origin of Species—included the following ideas: species change
through evolutionary time; evolutionary change is slow and imperceptible; evolution occurs through
adaptation to the environment; it generally progresses from the simple to the complex, although in a
few cases, it proceeds in reverse; and species are related to one another by common descent.
Furthermore, Lamarck's theory incorporated the fact that the world is old and proposed that life was
a result of abiogenesis, i.e., the origin of life derives from inanimate matter [11
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref011>].


Cuvier performed the first test of evolution

Cuvier had the opportunity to study two Sacred Ibis mummies that were collected by Saint-Hilaire,
who also worked at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris. Their coloration matched that of
the yellow-billed stork: white plumage and wing feathers marked with black, but the bones were too
small to be a stork and the shape of the beak was wrong—it was curved, not straight like that of a
stork (Fig 3
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio-2005558-g003>).
One conceivable explanation for these differences was evolution: namely, that "storks" had
morphologically changed since the time of the Egyptians [6
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref006>].

As more mummies were brought back from Egypt, Cuvier's assistant Rousseau was able to assemble a
composite skeleton. This skeleton remains on display at the museum. Cuvier used this skeleton (and
other loose bones from mummies) to make many careful morphometric measurements of the mummified
birds. According to Cuvier, there had been no changes in the morphology of the Egyptian mummified
"stork" over time. Cuvier compared the mummified bones to skeletons of six avian specimens of
another species with similar general characteristics. These specimens had an equivalent coloration,
body size, and, most importantly, a curved beak. He included two known stork specimens (M. ibis) in
the analysis. Cuvier carefully recorded body part measurements from all of these birds.

Based on these measurements, Cuvier correctly established that the mummies were not storks. He
determined that the mummified birds matched the unclassified birds from the museum. Cuvier went on
to name these birds Numenius ibis, and they have subsequently been reclassified as T. aethiopicus
(Sacred Ibis). Cuvier also recovered a few uniquely shaped black feathers from a mummy that provided
further evidence for his identification of the mummified birds as ibis. To Cuvier's knowledge, these
distinctive black feathers were a characteristic of the genus Numenius. Cuvier preserved these
feathers for future examination as "a remarkable monument of antiquity and a peremptory proof of the
identity of species" [12
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref012>].

The measurements of the mummified bones were not a perfect match with those taken from the museum
specimens of Sacred Ibis. However, the measurements between the ancient material and the
then-contemporary Sacred Ibis were similar, and Cuvier concluded that no detectable anatomical
changes had occurred over time. This made him the first to test the idea of evolution.


Sacred Ibis mummies become the focus of evolutionary debate

Lamarck and Cuvier publicly presented the animal mummies to the French Academy in 1802, along with
Comte de Lacépède [13
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref013>].
Referring to the mummies, the latter author remarked, "these animals are perfectly similar to those
of today" [14
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref014>].
Cuvier also described the lack of change in the ibis mummies as follows: "We certainly do not
observe more differences between these creatures and those which we see today than between human
mummies and today's human skeletons." [12
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref012>].
Whilst Cuvier and Lamarck agreed in their presentation to the Academy that no discernible changes
had taken place since the time of the Egyptians, their opposing views regarding the "fixity of
species" led them to clash on the significance of the findings. Lamarck insisted that extensive
periods of time with changing environmental conditions would be required to see the slow, gradual
changes (i.e., transmutations) in organisms over time [9
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref009>].
Lamarck's argument was that a passage of 3,000 years would have been insufficient to observe
evolutionary processes because the environmental conditions in Egypt had not changed during this
time. According to Lamarck, "It would indeed be very odd if it were otherwise; for the position and
climate of Egypt are still very nearly what they were in those times. Now the birds which live
there, being still in the same conditions as they were formerly, could not possibly have been forced
into a change of habits" [9
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref009>].
Cuvier acknowledged that only 2,000 to 3,000 years had elapsed at most (this estimate was recently
shown to be accurate [15
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref015>]),
but he denied that evolution would result from longer periods of time. He argued that longer
timescales simply contain the sum of changes within shorter periods. In other words, he reasoned
that since no changes had been observed over approximately 3,000 years, it was unreasonable to argue
that any longer timescale would produce them. Cuvier went on to publicly argue that his study on the
Sacred Ibis was evidence for the "fixity of species" in opposition to Lamarck. Throughout his
career, he produced several increasingly refined iterations of his case study of the mummified ibis
that were published from the late 18th century to at least 1827. Cuvier even carried his argument
through to Lamarck's death, incorporating it into his spiteful eulogy for Lamarck [16
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref016>].


The Great Debate

The Sacred Ibis debate set the scene for a much more intense controversy. A year after Lamarck's
death in 1829, a heated debate ensued in the French Academy of Sciences. This is commonly referred
to as "The Great Debate" (Fig 4
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio-2005558-g004>)
(as distinct from the later debate between Huxley and Wilberforce). The debate was a broad
philosophical exchange about the importance of functional properties of organisms and the "fixity of
species", what we now know as evolution. As in the Sacred Ibis debate, Cuvier was one of the central
participants, but on this occasion, Cuvier's protagonist was Saint-Hilaire. Saint-Hilaire generally
supported Lamarck's evolutionary ideas but emphasized organisms as products of the laws and
principles of biology. Cuvier argued that the functional properties of organisms explained their
existence through the will of a divine creator.

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<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/figure/image?download&size=large&id=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g004>
*
TIFF
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/figure/image?download&size=original&id=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g004>
original image
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/figure/image?download&size=original&id=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g004>

Fig 4. A timeline showing some of the major events in the history of the first test of evolution.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g004 <https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558.g004>


Conclusion

The case of the Sacred Ibis highlights the disproportionate influence that a charismatic and
dominant personality like Cuvier can have. The magnitude of Cuvier's influence has been the subject
of discussion [17
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref017>],
but, as Burkhardt [18
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref018>,
19
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref019>]
argued, "…Cuvier's magisterial and disapproving presence has long been recognised as a factor in the
poor reception of Lamarck's evolutionary theory by his contemporaries." Cuvier's unwillingness to
consider the potential for very small differences to accumulate over much longer timeframes enabled
him to interpret his study in a way that supported his own beliefs and set back the acceptance of
evolution for the next five decades [6
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio.2005558.ref006>].
The debate about the Sacred Ibis is an important but often unrecognized episode in the history of
science. Of great importance is the reminder, even today, of the power of a strong personality and
that the belief in "what they know to be true" can dramatically influence the direction of science
and public opinion.


Acknowledgments

We thank Ashley Hay for valuable feedback and helpful comments on the manuscript. We are also
grateful to Sally Wasef for the image used in Fig 2A
<https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2005558#pbio-2005558-g002>.


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Resend of Paris Fashion Week: Balmain's spring and summer 2019 collection has (Egyptian) mummy issues - Los Angeles Times

http://www.latimes.com/fashion/la-ig-pfw-balmain-20180929-story.html


Paris Fashion Week: Balmain's spring and summer 2019 collection has (Egyptian) mummy issues

By Adam Tschorn <http://www.latimes.com/la-bio-adam-tschorn-staff.html#nt=byline>
Sep 29, 2018 | 4:15 PM
| Paris
<mailto:?subject=Paris%20Fashion%20Week%3A%20Balmain%27s%20spring%20and%20summer%202019%20collection%20has%20%28Egyptian%29%20mummy%20issues&body=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.latimes.com%2Ffashion%2Fla-ig-pfw-balmain-20180929-story.html>


Paris Fashion Week: Balmain's spring and summer 2019 collection has (Egyptian) mummy issues
Looks from Balmain's spring and summer 2019 runway collection presented on Sept. 28 during Paris
Fashion Week. (Pascal Le Segretain / Getty Images)

Balmain's creative director Olivier Rousteing is an earnest and enthusiastic fellow, traits that
serve him well most of the time. But the mining of ancient Egyptian motifs for his spring and summer
2019 collection was not one of the times.

The show notes cast the collection, which was presented here Friday, as being inspired by two
incongruous aspects of Paris' history. The first is its role as a global fashion capital, writing "I
believe that it's our incomparable heritage of couture and its high standards of tailoring,
intricate sculpting and embellishment that distinguish us," going on to explain that the collection
was designed to pay homage to the City of Light by seeing how far he and his design team could riff
on those elements. (Spoiler alert: pretty far.)

The second is the designer's fascination with "the impressive obelisks, pyramids and columns that
date from Napoleon's campaigns and adorn the city's most iconic public spaces." The most prominent
of these is the Luxor Obelisk, a 3,300-year-old, 75-foot-tall, hieroglyph-covered granite column
which has stood at the center of the Place de la Concorde since 1836.

The first of these inspirations could be seen in the sculptural dresses that fanned out in pleated
semicircles from wrist to shoulder (some in fabric, others in silver chain mail), geometric shards
of glass and metal meticulously assembled like a milky glass mirror that's been shattered and
reassembled like a jigsaw puzzle. Glittery pieces of metal cinched waists, enclosed upper torsos and
piled atop severely strong shoulders.

Looks form the spring and summer 2019 Balmain runway collection.
Looks form the spring and summer 2019 Balmain runway collection. (Pascal Le Segretain / Getty Images)

The strong-shouldered silhouette could also be seen in many of the Egyptian-inspired pieces
including the hieroglyphics-pattern black-and-white tops and one of the geometric glass dresses
emblazoned with the stylized image of a pharaoh on the front.

So far so good with the ancient Egypt references, but what took the collection into Halloween
costume territory — and we mean this literally — were the assortment of pieces inspired by the gauzy
bandages that wrap mummies. These included a pair of trousers that looked as if they'd been fitted
onto the model from a roll of Charmin, a wrapped and draped cold-shouldered tulle top, and a
strong-shouldered bandage dress so barely there, a gauzy James Perse T-shirt seems like chain mail
by comparison.

Although Rousteing's exercise in envelope-pushing was an unabashed success on the technical side,
when it came to the ancient Egypt side of the equation, the mummy-bandage look felt more cartoonish
than couture.

--
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Paris Fashion Week: Balmain's spring and summer 2019 collection has (Egyptian) mummy issues - Los Angeles Times

http://www.latimes.com/fashion/la-ig-pfw-balmain-20180929-story.html


Paris Fashion Week: Balmain's spring and summer 2019 collection has (Egyptian) mummy issues

Adam Tschorn

<http://www.latimes.com/la-bio-adam-tschorn-staff.html>
By Adam Tschorn <http://www.latimes.com/la-bio-adam-tschorn-staff.html#nt=byline>
Sep 29, 2018 | 4:15 PM
| Paris
<mailto:?subject=Paris%20Fashion%20Week%3A%20Balmain%27s%20spring%20and%20summer%202019%20collection%20has%20%28Egyptian%29%20mummy%20issues&body=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.latimes.com%2Ffashion%2Fla-ig-pfw-balmain-20180929-story.html>


Paris Fashion Week: Balmain's spring and summer 2019 collection has (Egyptian) mummy issues
Looks from Balmain's spring and summer 2019 runway collection presented on Sept. 28 during Paris
Fashion Week. (Pascal Le Segretain / Getty Images)

Balmain's creative director Olivier Rousteing is an earnest and enthusiastic fellow, traits that
serve him well most of the time. But the mining of ancient Egyptian motifs for his spring and summer
2019 collection was not one of the times.

The show notes cast the collection, which was presented here Friday, as being inspired by two
incongruous aspects of Paris' history. The first is its role as a global fashion capital, writing "I
believe that it's our incomparable heritage of couture and its high standards of tailoring,
intricate sculpting and embellishment that distinguish us," going on to explain that the collection
was designed to pay homage to the City of Light by seeing how far he and his design team could riff
on those elements. (Spoiler alert: pretty far.)

The second is the designer's fascination with "the impressive obelisks, pyramids and columns that
date from Napoleon's campaigns and adorn the city's most iconic public spaces." The most prominent
of these is the Luxor Obelisk, a 3,300-year-old, 75-foot-tall, hieroglyph-covered granite column
which has stood at the center of the Place de la Concorde since 1836.

The first of these inspirations could be seen in the sculptural dresses that fanned out in pleated
semicircles from wrist to shoulder (some in fabric, others in silver chain mail), geometric shards
of glass and metal meticulously assembled like a milky glass mirror that's been shattered and
reassembled like a jigsaw puzzle. Glittery pieces of metal cinched waists, enclosed upper torsos and
piled atop severely strong shoulders.

Looks form the spring and summer 2019 Balmain runway collection.
Looks form the spring and summer 2019 Balmain runway collection. (Pascal Le Segretain / Getty Images)

The strong-shouldered silhouette could also be seen in many of the Egyptian-inspired pieces
including the hieroglyphics-pattern black-and-white tops and one of the geometric glass dresses
emblazoned with the stylized image of a pharaoh on the front.

So far so good with the ancient Egypt references, but what took the collection into Halloween
costume territory — and we mean this literally — were the assortment of pieces inspired by the gauzy
bandages that wrap mummies. These included a pair of trousers that looked as if they'd been fitted
onto the model from a roll of Charmin, a wrapped and draped cold-shouldered tulle top, and a
strong-shouldered bandage dress so barely there, a gauzy James Perse T-shirt seems like chain mail
by comparison.

Although Rousteing's exercise in envelope-pushing was an unabashed success on the technical side,
when it came to the ancient Egypt side of the equation, the mummy-bandage look felt more cartoonish
than couture.

--
Sent from my Linux system.

Friday, September 28, 2018

Tombs revealed - Al Ahram Weekly

http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/News/25328.aspx


MultiMedia <http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/Files/58/MultiMedia/0.aspx>


Tombs revealed


Tombs

<http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/WriterArticles/18/Nevine%20El-Aref/0.aspx>


Nevine El-Aref <http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/WriterArticles/18/Nevine%20El-Aref/0.aspx>

THE TOMBS of the Old Kingdom officials Mehu and Tiye will soon be open to the public following
extensive restoration, writes Nevine El-Aref.

"The tombs have great aesthetic and architectural as well as archaeological value," Minister of
Antiquities Khaled El-Enany told Al-Ahram Weekly.


Tombs


The mastaba tomb of the Sixth Dynasty vizier Mehu has been closed to the public since it was
discovered by an Egyptian mission in 1940. It is lavishly decorated with scenes depicting hunting,
farming and religious ceremonies as well as the baking of bread, brewing of beer and the preparation
of water fowl for the table.

The mastaba tomb of Tiye, overseer of the pyramids of Fifth Dynasty kings, is being readied for
opening by a Czech-Egyptian team that is currently installing a new lighting system and ramp to
facilitate wheelchair access.


Tombs


To the north of the mastaba tombs lies King Djoser's own tomb with exquisite faience tiles outlining
the doors and arches. In a few months, it too will be opening to the public for the first time since
it was discovered. Together, the three burial chambers are expected to become a highlight of the
extensive Saqqara necropolis.

--
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AWOL - The Ancient World Online: Open Access Journal: Routes de l'Orient: Revue d'Archéologie de l'Orient Ancien

http://ancientworldonline.blogspot.com/2016/10/open-access-journal-routes-de-lorient.html
On 09/20/2018 11:59 AM, Charles Jones wrote:
> Open Access Journal: Routes de l'Orient: Revue d'Archéologie de l'Orient Ancien [First posted in
> AWOL: 23 November 2017, updates with new content 20 September 2018]
>
> Routes de l'Orient: Revue d'Archéologie de l'Orient Ancien
> <https://rdorient.hypotheses.org/revue-routes-de-lorient>
> ISSN: 2272-8120
> ISSN: 2492-8542
>
> Routes de l'Orient est une association étudiante à but non lucratif ayant pour objectif
> principal de promouvoir la recherche en archéologie orientale grâce à la participation active
> d'étudiants et au soutien d'enseignants et de chercheurs. Routes de l'Orient est intéressée
> par les autres disciplines actrices de la recherche orientale (épigraphiste, anthropologue,
> historien, numismate, ...). Elle regroupe des étudiants provenant de différentes universités
> telles que Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris 4 Sorbonne, l'École pratique des hautes études
> (EPHE), le Museum d'histoire naturelle ou encore l'École du Louvre et tend à s'ouvrir à
> d'autres universités françaises et étrangères.
>
> Routes de l'Orient is a non profit association rallying students in Oriental archaeology, also
> interesting in others eastern disciplins (history, anthropology, epigraphy, ...). We are
> actively working together with the help and support of scholars and senior lecturers to share
> recent research in our field with the broader public. We currently include undergraduates and
> postgraduates from various Parisian universities (Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris 4 Sorbonne,
> Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (EPHE), Ecole du Louvre) and hope to extend our membership to
> other student communities both in France and abroad.
>
> Hors-Série n°3: Actualité archéologique française au Soudan
> <https://f-origin.hypotheses.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/2620/files/2018/09/page-de-garde-um%C3%A9ro-soudan.jpg>La
> version compressée ici ! <https://drive.google.com/open?id=1mdKkfqGZU7tXaipBbWHlkYeZEP2vBZES>
> La version imprimable ici ! <https://drive.google.com/open?id=1FcO6Rq2QZikzyfTo3A_SHCFkb2yB7atY>
>
> N° 3 – « Actualité des recherches archéologiques »
> La version compressée ici ! <https://drive.google.com/open?id=1eQQTKYiwIM5UrBkP0THHDH8mBVIey9LU>
> La version imprimable ici ! <https://drive.google.com/open?id=1yTdIs5w8k93dQfo4zs-L8ar2RvzHe7xr>
> Hors-série n° 2 : « Actualité des recherches archéologiques en Arabie »
> une <https://f.hypotheses.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/2620/files/2016/01/Une.jpeg>
> La version compressée c'est par ICI !
> <https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B4b5XbnN1IZMbmJER3VOUUI0X28>
> La version imprimable c'est par ICI !
> <https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B4b5XbnN1IZMeTRGTGRhS0RxNmc>
> N° 2 – « Actualité des recherches archéologiques »
> <https://www.blogger.com/null>
> Cliquez sur l'image pour ouvrir le document
> <https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4b5XbnN1IZMTEpqTnVTMmlzSWs/view>
>
> N° 1 – « Actualités de la recherche archéologique »
> <https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4b5XbnN1IZMTWphNGlkX1QtVmc/edit?usp=sharing>
> *Cliquez sur l'image pour ouvrir le document
> <https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4b5XbnN1IZMTWphNGlkX1QtVmc/edit?usp=sharing>*
>
>
> Hors-série n°1 – « Kurdistan : actualités des recherches archéologiques françaises «
> <https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4b5XbnN1IZMU255enNWQkQ0ODg/view?usp=sharing>
> Cliquez sur l'image pour consulter et télécharger le document
> <https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4b5XbnN1IZMU255enNWQkQ0ODg/view?usp=sharing>
>
> Si vous désirez télécharger l'exemplaire destiné à l'impression (300 dpi), cliquez ici !
> <https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4b5XbnN1IZMZ0ZVVDJ2ZTFRclE/view?usp=sharing>
>
>
> See AWOL's full List of Open Access Journals in Ancient Studies
> <http://ancientworldonline.blogspot.co.uk/2015/12/alphabetical-list-of-open-access.html>


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