Thursday, September 21, 2017

AWOL - The Ancient World Online: Open Access Journal: Sudan & Nubia: The Sudan Archaeological Research Society Bulletin
On 08/31/17 13:32, Charles Jones wrote:
Open Access Journal: Sudan & Nubia: The Sudan Archaeological Research Society Bulletin [First posted in AWOL 9 November 2012, updated 31 August 2017]

Sudan & Nubia: The Sudan Archaeological Research Society Bulletin
ISSN: 1369-5770
Sudan & Nubia is published each autumn. It contains much of interest on recent archaeological fieldwork in Sudan, including many articles on surveys and excavations only undertaken during the previous winter.
The bulletin is an ideal way to keep abreast of current British activities in Sudan, and also contains contributions by eminent foreign scholars. It is profusely illustrated with line drawings and monochrome and colour photographs.
Sudan & Nubia is free of charge to Society members, who receive it a year in advance of online release … JOIN THE SOCIETY >
Individual articles can be read (free) through the online reading service ISSUU by following the links below. If a download is preferred, sign up to ISSUU, which will then provide download links (free).
Most recent available issue online:
Sudan & Nubia : No. 18
Bulletin of the Sudan Archaeological Research Society, London, 2014
180 pagesREAD ARTICLES >

Anderson, J.R., Mahmoud Suliman Bashir and Salah Mohamed Ahmed. Dangeil 2013-14: porches, ovens and a glimpse undergroundread now >
Bangsgaard, P. Animal Deposits at H29, a Kerma Ancient cemetery in the Northern Dongola Reachread now >
Davies, M. Archaeology in South Sudan past and present: Gordon's fort at Laboré and other sites of interestread now >
Davies, V.W. From Halfa to Kareima: F. W. Green in Sudanread now >
Davies, W.V., Ruffieux, P. and Mahmoud Suliman Bashir. The Korosko Road Projectread now >
Haddon, S.D. and Nicholas, M..The 2014 season of excavations at Kurgusread now >
Humphris, J. Post-Meroitic Iron Production: initial results and interpretationsread now >
Kleintz, C. The graffiti of Musawwarat es-Sufra: current research on historic inscriptions, images and markings at the Great Enclosureread now >
Mahmoud Suliman Bashir. QSAP Dam-Debba Archaeological Survey Project (DDASP). Preliminary report on the NCAM mission's first season, 2013-2014read now >
Murtada Bushara Mohamed, Gamal Gaffar Abbass Elhassan, Mohammed Fath Elrahman Ahmed and Alrashed Mohammed Ibrahem Ahmed. Kerma in Napata: a new discovery of Kerma graves in the Napatan region (Magashi village)read now >
Onderka, P. Wad ben Naga: a history of the siteread now >
Pieri, A. The Kushite cemetery of Dangeil (WTC): preliminary analyses of the human remainsread now >
Sjöström, I.W. Kurgus 2012: report on the surveyread now >
Welsby, D.A. and R.I. Thomas. The Qatar-Sudan Archaeological Project in the Northern Dongala Reachread now >
P. Wolf, U. Nowotnick and F. Wöß. Meroitic Hamadab – a century after its discoveryread now >
See issues 1-18 (full text) and 19-20 (TOC only)

And see also:
Newsletters 1991-1996 
Between 1991 and 1996, the Society published eleven issues of a biannual newsletter, reporting on surveys and excavations, plus general information on Society activities. The newsletter has been replaced by the Society's annual bulletin, Sudan & Nubia … see Bulletin: Sudan & Nubia
Each newsletter can be read (free) through the online reading service ISSUU by following the links below. If a download is preferred, sign up to ISSUU, which will then provide download links (free).

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Open Access Journal: Minerva: The International Review of Ancient Art & Archaeology

On 09/13/17 08:44, Charles Jones wrote:
Open Access Journal: Minerva: The International Review of Ancient Art & Archaeology  [First posted in AWOL 6 August 2012. Updated 13 September 2017]

Minerva: The International Review of Ancient Art & Archaeology
ISSN 0957-7718
Minerva is the leading international publication focusing on archaeology, the antiquities markets, and exhibitions. Enjoyed by academics and non-specialists alike, Minerva is published six times a year and features a broad range of articles, news, interviews, travel, book reviews and listings of upcoming events.

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AWOL - The Ancient World Online: Worldwide Database of University Museums and Collections
On 09/14/17 07:07, Charles Jones wrote:
Worldwide Database of University Museums and Collections Worldwide Database of University Museums and Collections
The Worldwide Database of University Museums and Collections is a project developed in 2001 by UMAC, the International Committee for University Museums and Collections of the International Council of Museums (ICOM), under the coordination of Dr. Cornelia Weber, Coordination Centre for Scientific University Collections in Germany.
It results from the recognition that universities and, more generally, higher education institutions, have museums, collections and cultural heritage of scientific, artistic and historical significance, yet many remain poorly known by their communities and the general public.
For more information, visit the website of UMAC, the International Committee of ICOM for University Museums and Collections!


In 2016-2017, the Worldwide Database of University Museums and Collections went through considerable redevelopment aimed at introducing a new design, new functionalities and a more user-friendly interface. In April 2017, it was relaunched.

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AWOL - The Ancient World Online: Egyptology Books and Articles in PDF Online, University of Memphis
On 09/15/17 07:34, Charles Jones wrote:
Egyptology Books and Articles in PDF Online, University of Memphis [First posted in AWOL 19 December 2013, updated 15 September 2017]

Egyptology Books and Articles in PDF Online
The world-wide-web is replete with links to Egyptological resources, and there are many pages of bibliography out there, of which the prime example is the Online Egyptological Bibliography. But as yet, none of the more systematic bibliographies are publishing links to the actual PDF files of books and articles which may be freely acquired online, although they may be collecting the URL references. This project attempts to go some way toward filling that gap. 
Links to alphabetic sections:   A  B-C  D-F  G-J  K-M  N-R  S-U  V-Z
Notice: Bookmark this page, not the individual lists, as the file names may change.
The list uses standard Egyptological abbreviations for books and journals.
This project is a "work in progress", and is bound to contain errors and omissions. The document takes the form of one large HTML file with the data arranged by author; links to both the web page from which the file can be accessed and the PDF file for the document itself are given. Searching must be done using the Find function of your web browser. It may be possible to enhance this capability in the future, but much will depend on the reactions of internet users to this work.
The data has been collected and arranged by Andrea Middleton, Brooke Garcia, and Robyn Price, Graduate Assistants in the Institute of Egyptian Art and Archaeology, a unit of the Department of Art in the University of Memphis (Tennessee, USA). We have tried to seek out as many books and articles as possible on Egyptological subjects which are freely accessible to anyone without the need for privileged access. Thus we have searched sites such as the Internet Archive, the University of Heidelberg Library, the Oriental Institute, the Metropolitan Museum, the Giza Library, Ancient World Online (AWOL), and many more, as well as attempting to collect links noted in the pages of EEF (Egyptologists' Electronic Forum) News.
Sites which require institutional access or a password are not included—thus journals on JSTOR have not been indexed. Nor have papers available on or (BIFAO) been included here. It is likely that some articles on JSTOR are duplicated elsewhere, and it is equally possible that some articles and books are available at more than one location. In the latter case, we have tried to give all the options.
Please report comments, errors, etc. to ppodzrsk @ We hope this work is useful.

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Nefertiti granted the resurrection of Akhenaten. Part II - María Rosa Valdesogo

Nefertiti granted the resurrection of Akhenaten. Part II

Isis, Nephthys and later on also Serket and Neith were essential in the regeneration sphere. They, as women/goddessees, played a crucial role in the process of resurrection in Ancient Egypt. 

For that reason, ancient Egyptian artist included their images in every funerary artefact related with the mummy (at both ends of coffins and sarcophagi, in canopic shrines, ushabti boxes…).

Canopic chest of priest of Montu Pady-Imenet. Neith pouring water on Qebehsenuef, the son of Horus who protected the intestines. XXII Dynasty. Luxor Museum. Photo:

Nevertheless, what happened under the reign of Akhenaton? During the Amarna Period the official religion changed into a kind of monotheism. The only officialy worshipped divinity was the sun disk Aten and every old divinity disappeared, included the goddesses.

How did they managed the matter of the resurrection and the women/goddesses involved in it?

The most important female figure in that period of the history of Ancient Egypt was Nefertiti. She had a higher status than former royal wives did, even in religion. Not only she had her own role in the cult to the Aten, iconography shows how it was considered that Nefertiti had a reviving power in herself.


Sarcophagus of Akhenaten. Nefertiti is depicted at the four corners. Cairo Museum. Photo: Mª Rosa Valdesogo.

The sarcophagus of Akhenaten is a clear proof of that. The image of Nefertiti appears at the four corners of the sarcophagus embracing the corpse from every point. Until that moment, Isis and Nephthys were depicted at both ends of sarcophagi and coffins.

Detail of Nefertiti embracing the sarcophagus of Akehanten. Cairo Museum. Photo: Mª Rosa Valdesogo.

However, once the Osirian theology disappeared and with it these two regenerating goddesses, it seems that Nefertiti took their role. For that reason her image appears in the king's sarcophagus, because she could grant the resurrection of Akhenaten, as previously did Isis and Nephthys.

So, the concept remained, but it was reinterpreted under the Atenism.

This idea remains reinforced when we have a look at later sarcophagi of Tutankhamoun and Ay.

Detail of sarcophagus of Tutankhamoun. Nephthys ant one corner embracing the corpse. Photo:

Once the traditional religion of Ancient Egypt was restored and ancient deities were again worshipped, the female responsible of the dead's resurrection recovered their role.

Sarcophagus of Ay. Photo:

That is why in the sarcophagi of Tutankhamun and Ay the four corners were occupied by Isis, Nephthys, Serket and Neith. The group of four goddesses who granted the dead's resurrection were the subtitute of Nefertiti at the four corners embracing the mummy.


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Nefertiti granted the resurrection of Akhenaten. Part I - María Rosa Valdesogo

Nefertiti granted the resurrection of Akhenaten. Part I

Let's start with that: women were crucial in Ancient Egypt for the dead's resurrection.

The rite of the professional mourning ritual in ancient Egyptian funerals was based on the Osirian theology.

That happened becasue in the belief of Ancient Egypt the dead (Osiris) was regenerated thanks to aid of his wife/sister Isis (and by extension of his sister/sister in law Nephthys).

Goddess Nephthys from a coffin.

She was able to recover many vital functions to the corpse: breath, movement, virility…Not for nothing the image of Isis (and of Nephthys) was present in funerary artefacts (coffins, sarcophagi, caponic chests…)

We also know that in some moment of the history of Ancient Egyp that regenerating role was responsibility also of Serket and Neith. They formed with Isis and Nephthys a group of four goddesses who contributed actively to the dead's resurrection. That is why, their images were present in funerary furniture (sarcophagi, ushabti boxes, canopic shrine…).

Canopic shrine of Tutankhamun with he four goddesses Isis, Nephthys, Serket and Neith. Photo

That shows how important were women/goddesses for the dead's resurrection from a professional and official point of view. Their status in this sphere was high enough to become indispensable.

What happened in the Egyptian thought in this regard during the Amarna Period? Under the reign of Akhenaton these divinities disappeared from the pantheon. However, the need of a resurrection did not disappear.

Funerals, mummification, tombs… still existed. But what happened with the concept/image of women/goddesses, who performed a role in the resurrection?

At that point, we cannot avoid thinking of the most important feminine figure during the Amarna Period: Nefertiti.

The status of Nefertiti.

Many points in the depictions of Queen Nefertiti show her importance during the reign of Akhenaton:

  • She appears smiting the enemies, a gesture which was exclusive of Kings.
  • She appears also worshipping alone the sun disk Aten. Kings made the cult to the dynastic divinity and the Queen worshipped just "feminine" goddesses as Isis, Hathor, Mut…
  • She had an active role in the Window of Appearance giving awards to officials joint with her husband king Akhenaton.
  • She receives with Akhenaton foreign tributes.
  • Once in Amarna many of her depictions had the same size as the king.

Three images of Queen Nefertiti in different gestures showing her high status.

All these examples points to a high status of Nefertiti in this period…but how can we match that with funerals and resurrection?

In the next post we will watch deeply how did ancient Egyptian do that.

To be continued…

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Fwd: Ugly Object of the Month – September
On 09/05/17 12:10, cperson01 wrote:
Ugly Object of the Month – September

BY SUZANNE DAVIS, Curator of Conservation

It's back-to-school time, and town is certainly feeling lively as ~30,000 students return to campus. It's also the harvest season here in Michigan, where it's already starting to feel like fall. That is sort of, maybe, a decent lead-in to this month's ugly object which is…wait for it…some pieces of wheat!


Wheat. 1st – 3rd c AD. University of Michigan excavations at Karanis, Egypt. 3958.


This is some bonafide archaeological grain-stuff here and, while it might not be considered a typical museum-quality artwork, I think it looks pretty amazing. According to Kelsey Curator and Director Terry Wilfong, wheat was the biggest and most important crop for ancient Karanis. Egypt was a major producer of grain for the Roman Empire, and Karanis had ten large granaries to store it prior to its shipment to Alexandria and then Rome. Some of this wheat's brethren might have been eaten by emperors! But if, for some reason, it fails to impress you with its extreme ancient awesomeness, be aware that we also have garlic bulbs and a bunch of other fantastic 1,700 year-old seeds on view. Come enjoy the Kelsey's cornucopia of ancient – if not always attractive – agricultural delights.

Filed under: Ugly Object

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INTERVIEW: Architect Mohamed Dessouki on the desperate need to save Alexandria’s parks - Heritage - Ahram Online

INTERVIEW: Architect Mohamed Dessouki on the desperate need to save Alexandria's parks

Dina Ezzat , Sunday 17 Sep 2017

The fight to preserve architectural heritage of Egypt's Alexandria

It was back in 1922, upon writing his 'Alexandria: a history and a guide,' that E.M. Forster wrote that "if one would judge Alexandria by her gardens, one would have nothing but praise."

Almost a century later, Mohamed Dessouki, a founding member of Save Alex, a pressure group dedicated to preserving the city's heritage, fears that the country's most prominent Mediterranean port city is facing a challenge in preserving its floral wealth as well as its architectural heritage.

"Public gardens have always been at the heart of city planning and life in general in Alexandria. Today, this concept is being seriously challenged, as we see a declining interest in preserving gardens, and certainly an attempt to attach parts of municipal gardens to clubs that only serve those affiliated to the power elite," Dessouki, who is also the founder of the Walls of Alex blog, said in an interview with Ahram Online.

Dessouki says that many think of preserving Alexandria only in terms of a beautiful but highly eroded architectural history, but only a few give adequate attention to the botanical heritage of the city.

"This botanical history is by no means less significant than the architectural heritage of Alexandria. In Save Alex, as well as in the Walls of Alex, we voice concern about both issues among other things that relate to the beauty of this harbour city," Dessouki said.

Most recently, Dessouki has been campaigning to fight the declining awareness of the city's botanical wealth.

In a series of lectures and articles, this preservation activist has been sharing information and pictures of the long history of four main public parks and gardens in the city; the municipal gardens (better known as elshalalat, or the waterfalls), El-Nozha (which holds both the zoo and Alzohour flower garden), Antoniadis and El-Montazah.

These parks were planted and flourished mostly during the heyday of Alexandria in the second half of the 19th century.

Dessouki notes, however, that the beginning was actually during the reign of Mohamed Ali at the start of the 19th century, when the ambitious and visionary ruler of Egypt decided to dig the Mahmoudiya Canal, which brought the Nile water to Alexandria near the southern entrance to the city, which had been suffering growing neglect.

"It was this canal that helped give the city its many acres of exotic botanical wealth, and it has also held a special place in the hearts of those who lived in and loved the city," Dessouki said.

The Mahmoudiya Canal (Photo: Courtesy of Dessouki's archive)

Dessouki reminds us that across the Mahmoudiya Canal, there were once beautiful houses surrounded by some exotic gardens.
"Those, however, were so callously removed during the 1950s and 1960s upon the construction of the city's industrial zone [under then-president Gamal Abdel-Nasser]."

"There is very little left of those once-beautiful gardens," Dessouki added.

"An exceptionally rich garden that surrounded the mansion of Prince Omar Tousson, who was the chair of the agricultural association in the early 20th century, is all gone except for a single and sad Ficus Benghalensis," he said.

Today, as Dessouki shows in a disheartening photo, this beautiful and old evergreen has been turned into a storage spot for a car workshop.

Ficus Benghalensis in Prince Omar Tousson's garden (Photo: Courtesy of Dessouki's archive)

"This is certainly a crime that should not have been allowed," Dessouki said, adding that this would not have been the case if not for "hasty and poorly thought out development planning."

Dessouki is now worried about a new development that could contribute to the erosion of the city's "natural history"; the current plans to fill in the Mahmoudiya Canal as part of a large development scheme.

"Apart from the historic significance how the canal was dug -- as it was the fruit of long and hard labour by Egyptian workers, some of whom literally gave their lives in the process, as others did with the Suez Canal -- the Mahmoudiya Canal is part of the history of Alexandria," Dessouki argued.

The Mahmoudiya Canal (Photo: Courtesy of Dessouki's archive)

He suggested that the digging of this canal was the beginning of a new rise of the city that allowed for waves of migration that opened the door for the city's boom in the early decades of the 20th century.

Dessouki believes that granting the gardens and public parks of Alexandria a new spirit is possible only with "consolidated effort from pressure groups. The municipality should not be left to its devices without pressure from civil society."

Dessouki says that regaining public gardens and parks has great cultural and even political significance, because "ultimately, it is about the acquisition of the public space."

In the fear that preservation efforts may be in vain, Dessouki is joining other keen activists in documenting with pictures and maps the gardens and parks of Alexandria.

Short link:


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Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Remembering a Pharaoh - Al Ahram Weekly

Remembering a Pharaoh

The life of the ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II is being relived in a major exhibition in Milan, reports Nevine El-Aref


Remembering a Pharaoh
Nevine El-Aref
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It seems that the shadow cast over Italian-Egyptian relations is about to disappear. The ambassadors of both countries have returned, and the ancient Egyptians will be spending the autumn in Milan in "The Extraordinary Discovery of Pharaoh Amenhotep II" exhibition inaugurated last week at the city's Museum of Cultures (MUDEC).

Remembering a Pharaoh

It tells the story of the 18th-Dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep II, son of Thutmose III, the sovereign of a lavish court and heroic central figure in a rich historical period that historians have baptised a Golden Age.

A wonderful display of artefacts and photographs has been carefully selected from the most important ancient Egyptian collections in the world for the Milan exhibition. The Egyptian Museum in Cairo has loaned nine pieces, and other source institutions include the Stichting Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in Leiden, the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, the National Archaeological Museum in Florence, and the Giovanni Barracco Museum of Ancient Sculpture in Rome.

Remembering a Pharaoh

These museums and other private collections have loaned for the occasion statues, weapons, items from daily life at court, burial assemblages and mummies.

The exhibition also sees the collaboration of the University of Milan, which has loaned the original excavation documents for the Pharaoh's tomb, as well as the collaboration of the Milan civic museums network, in particular the Castello Sforzesco Museum that has provided finds from its Egyptian collections while it is temporarily closed for renovation.

The exhibition poster featuring a beautifully carved marble bust of Amenhotep II can be seen everywhere on display in Milan, in the city's streets, stations, shops and restaurants.

Remembering a Pharaoh

The MUDEC where the exhibition is being held has been turned into an ancient Egyptian ceremonial arena for the occasion. To the music of harps, young men wearing golden nemes (ancient Egyptian head coverings) and silver kilts in the ancient Egyptian style with golden collars and belts greet exhibition visitors.

Further inside the exhibition, the atmosphere becomes more dramatic, providing an impressive setting for the granite, limestone, marble, wooden, golden and faience objects on display. All in all, visitors are taken into a truly epic experience to explore the life and history of Amenhotep II in a succession of poetic dramatisations as well as an audio-visual demonstration.

Remembering a Pharaoh

Multi-media shows are used throughout the exhibition rooms, offering an immersive experience that conjures up the ancient Nilotic atmosphere of the Egyptian landscapes of the second millennium BC.

Architect Cesare Mari, the designer of the spectacular displays, said that the atmosphere had been produced through an ambiance of bright light and semi-darkness, as well as soft-hued, shimmering colours in the exhibition's various sections.

"Blue in different shades is a colour used throughout the exhibition to reflect two key moments in the king's story: his life and death," he told Al-Ahram Weekly. He said that light blue had been used in the halls displaying the life of the king, while dark blue was used in the halls showing his funerary collection. In the main area there is a replica of the Pharaoh's tomb relating its discovery and the mummies' cachette uncovered inside it by French Egyptologist Victor Loret.

Remembering a Pharaoh

"Although the replica is built in wood and 20 per cent smaller than the original, it is always in scale," Mari said, adding that new technology in the form of a "tattoo wall" had been used to decorate the tomb's walls.

"This is the first exhibition on Amenhotep II ever held in Italy," Patrizia Piacentini, holder of the chair of Egyptology at Milan University, told the Weekly. She described the exhibition as a dream come true and an ambition that she had had since 2008 when an exhibition was organised at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo about the discoverer of Amenhotep II's tomb Loret.

"The opportunity came almost a decade later when the MUDEC decided to bring Egypt to Milan by organising an ancient Egyptian exhibition on this distinguished Pharaoh," Piacentini said.

Although he was an important sovereign, Amenhotep II has never before been the subject of a monographic exhibition, and he is little known to the public at large. "Perhaps it is because he was eclipsed by his famous father Thutmose III," Piacentini said, adding that the documents regarding the discovery of his tomb in the Valley of the Kings in 1898 were also unknown until 15 years ago.

Today, these original documents are owned by the University of Milan, which conserves them in its archives. The public will be given access to them for the first time in the exhibition in a "theatrical" context, giving visitors the chance to recall the excitement of the discovery with the reconstruction of the pillared royal tomb.

"This immersive experience, focusing on the funerary beliefs of the time and mummification, allows the public to enter the sepulchral room to admire the treasures that accompanied the Pharaoh on his journey to the hereafter," Piacentini said.

The artefacts from the tomb not only include the mummy of the Pharaoh himself, but also those of a number of New Kingdom royal figures that had been hidden inside the sepulchral rooms to protect them from raiders in antiquity.

Egypt's ancient Nile Valley civilisation during the second millennium BC will also come under examination in other sections of the exhibition. Daily life, with the uses and customs of the social classes nearest to the court of Amenhotep II, is also illustrated through jewellery, cosmetics and weapons that show the technological levels reached in this period of ancient Egyptian history.

The theme of funerary beliefs provides insights into the lengthy and complex duration of this extraordinary ancient civilisation. The exhibition therefore sets out to inform the public of a double rediscovery: that of the historical figure of Amenhotep II, and that of the rediscovery of his important funerary collection unearthed inside his tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Piacentini said that objects on display in the exhibition had been borrowed from the Egyptian Museum, among them a beautiful statue representing the great Pharaoh with strong muscles and a relaxed smile.

A second statue depicts him as a sphinx, while a third is his official statue showing him sitting on a throne. A black panther statue from his funerary collection is also among the borrowed items from Egypt, as well as the jed and ankh symbols of life, a painted wooden boat and two painted wooden statues of a goddess in the shape of a winged cobra.

Amenhotep II's classmates from school became top officials during his reign, and some of these are also presented in the exhibition through their funerary collections. Children will be attracted to the exhibition through its use of lovable cartoon mice in its posters.

Francesca Calabretta, the organiser of the exhibition, said that its great distinction, devised specifically for the MUDEC, was that it harmoniously combined academic study with a captivating experience that would immediately engage visitors.

The exhibition runs until January 2018 and is sponsored by the Milan City Council.


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