Sunday, July 12, 2020

‘Pharaohcast’ Transports Listeners to the Fascinating World of Ancient Egypt

'Pharaohcast' Transports Listeners to the Fascinating World of Ancient Egypt

'Pharaohcast' is a brand new podcast which tells the whimsical stories of Ancient Egypt.

You know about the early death of King Tut and the warrior spirit of Ramses II, but considering there's about 30 or more centuries of Ancient Egypt to look back on, you'd hope to have more stories to share. And much like those ancient tombs and statues and once-forgotten hieroglyphics, those stories are out there - they're just waiting to be dug up and shown to the world. 'Pharaohcast' is a brand new podcast dedicated to displaying these very same obscure stories, myths and legends. Hosted by Salwa Shenouda, a tour guide with 28 years of experience under her belt, and author and illustrator Danny Arafa, the Pharaohcast takes on Ancient Egyptian storytelling in a way that's easy to digest, even with several millennia of culture gaps between us.

"We thought it would a good idea to share Egyptian history with Egyptian people – and the whole world," Shenouda told CairoScene. "Our podcast tries to bring all of these ancient stories to life, and to bring Egypt itself to life. It's not just about narrating and listing dates, but more so about creating an atmospheric journey through music and sound effects – as if people are sailing up the Nile or walking through a tomb."

From little-known details of the pharaohs' lives, to stories about tombs and mummification, to the history of Nubia, and more - the Pharaohcast delves into every nook and cranny to give Egyptians a real feel for their own history.

"We are also trying to use the podcast to pave the way for new perspectives," Shenouda said. "Egyptians have never been educated on their ancient history in a proper way. That's why they sometimes feel that it's really boring to listen to. We want to expose listeners to interesting details contained within Ancient Egyptian history that they were probably never aware of."

'Pharaohcast' hopes that their work can support tourism sector. Even though the pandemic has put it on hold, the podcast has its fingers crossed that their stories can inspire people to give Egypt's ancient sites a closer look - whether they get there as domestic or international tourists. To learn about Ancient Egypt's more obscure stories, tune in to 'Pharaohcast' on any of your favourite streaming platforms.

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Egypt- Earliest Pyramid Texts on view at lesser-known Saqqara pyramids | MENAFN.COM


Egypt- Earliest Pyramid Texts on view at lesser-known Saqqara pyramids

(MENAFN - Daily News Egypt) When most people think of the ancient Egyptian burial grounds at the Saqqara necropolis, they are most likely to think of the famous Step Pyramid of Old Kingdom Pharaoh, Djoser. 

However, many are less likely to know of the Memphis necropolis nearby, which features pyramids more mesmerising than that of the Step Pyramid.

From the outside, the Pyramid of Unas looks like nothing more than a tumbledown, eroded mass, but don't let that fool you. This pyramid needs to be seen from the inside to truly appreciate its artistic value.

Like most pyramids, visitors need to bend over and almost squat their way down inside, but it is worth that physical effort. It is the bottom-most chamber where the Pyramid Texts, the earliest version of the Book of the Dead, first come into view.

Inscribed onto the walls in these subterranean chambers for the first time in Unas' pyramid, the tradition of funerary texts, also called Pyramid Texts, spell out what charms and spells for the king's afterlife.

The smooth-sided pyramid was built in the 24th century BC for the Egyptian Pharaoh Unas, the ninth and last king of the Fifth Dynasty. The pyramid's core masonry consisted of accreted blocks, encased in a fine limestone casing.

This tradition of placing Pyramid Texts inside ancient Egyptian tombs was carried on in the pyramids of subsequent rulers, through to the end of the Old Kingdom, and into the Middle Kingdom. It was these Coffin Texts that formed the basis of the Book of the Dead, which were aimed to help the soul carry on into the afterlife.

By the New Kingdom, the pyramid had already fallen into decay. This is shown through a massive inscription left by Khaemwaset, the famous son of Ramesses II and High-priest of Memphis, in which he referred to his restoration of the monument.

Unas' pyramid is entered by an entrance chapel, of which only some traces remain. The entrance is located at ground level, in the middle of the pyramid's north side courtyard, rather than in the pyramid's face.

From the entrance, a descending passage goes down to a small corridor chamber. The horizontal passage after this corridor chamber was once blocked by three granite portcullises, in the hopes it would prevent robbers from entering the pharaoh's tomb.

After the portcullises, the passage opens into an antechamber of 3.75 x 3.08 metres, located directly under the pyramid's centre axis.

To the east of the antechamber opens a small room with three recesses, sometimes described as statue niches. Opposite the niches, to the west of the antechamber lies the burial chamber, with its basalt sarcophagus still in place.

All the rooms underneath the pyramid were built using fine limestone, except for the west wall of the burial chamber and the western halves of its north and south walls, where alabaster was used.

The ceiling of the burial chamber was painted with golden stars in a dark blue sky, a common feature of Pharaonic tombs, often used to represent Nut, the goddess of the sky and heavens. Unas' sarcophagus was made of black basalt, representing Egypt's fertile earth, in an area closely resembling his living quarters, underneath the dark nightly sky.

The vertical columns of the burial chamber, the antechamber and the horizontal passage again contain some of the earliest known examples of the Pyramid Texts. It also contains even more of the oldest collection of religious texts known to mankind.

The pyramid of Unas contains only 283 of the 700 known spells that eventually made up the Pyramid Texts, and form a collection of spells and formulae meant to protect the deceased in the afterlife.

To the left of the sarcophagus' foot stood the canopic chest which, when the Pharaoh was buried would have contained the major organs. Instead, a left arm and hand, together with pieces of a skull were found in the debris of stones and dirt.

These fragments were mummified in several lengths of linen bandages, preserving some of the skin and hair. Whilst it is not impossible that these remains, which are now preserved in the Cairo Museum, are of the Pharaoh Unas himself, it is unconfirmed.

The rooms underneath the pyramid follow the same basic arrangement as that of Pharaoh Teti's, who succeeded Unas on the Ancient Egypt throne, to become the first pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty.

Teti's pyramid, also located on the Saqqara plateau, is the second known pyramid containing pyramid texts.

Teti's final resting place was built in the same style as Unas', using the steps form, which was based on the mastaba design. The core masonry was made of accreted blocks of stone, encased in fine limestone.

Some of the blocks of the outer casing are still in place on the east side of the pyramid, but, as with so many Ancient Egyptian monuments, the rest were carried away over the centuries by stone-robbers. This constant recycling of ancient monuments has caused the pyramid's core masonry to become exposed and crumble into the rounded mound of stones seen today.

Teti's pyramid is entered from the north side, with the entrance located at ground level, along the central axis. It was covered simply with some flagstones, with a small rectangular entrance chapel built directly above the entry point.

The painted reliefs on the chapel's side walls showed the usual offerings bearers, and a false door of black basalt was built against the chapel's back wall. Its roof was made of a single limestone slab, decorated with a pattern of stars, with the remaining pivot sockets indicating that wooden doors once closed the chapel's entrance.

The substructure of Teti's pyramid is similar to that of Unas', with the only difference being that Teti's is slightly larger. Granite covers the walls of the descending passage which opens out into a small chamber which in turn opens out into a horizontal passageway. Three portcullises were intended to block the passage and prevent robbers from desecrating the burial area.

In the interior, visitors can see portions of the hieroglyphic spells that make up the Pyramid Texts up close, as well as a shower of stars.

The horizontal passage opens into the antechamber, which is located under the pyramid's centre. To the east is a room with three niches that are thought to have once contained some statues of the Pharaoh Teti.

Opposite the three niches, to the west of the antechamber, the burial chamber can be found. Except for the lid, which suffered at the heavy hands of tomb robbers, Teti's basalt sarcophagus is well preserved. It represents the first example of a sarcophagus with inscriptions in the form of a single band of Pyramid Texts.

As was the case with Unas' pyramid, the walls in Teti's burial chamber, the antechamber and part of the horizontal passage are inscribed with Pyramid Texts. The texts are far more damaged than Unas', which is due to the poorer state of preservation of the pyramid's substructure.


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Art World Roundup: the end of King Tut 's touring show?
Does a major King Tut exhibition violate Egyptian law?

An Egyptian lawyer, Sayed Said, has filed a lawsuit against the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities in relation to "Tutankhamun: Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh," an international blockbuster exhibition of more than 130 artefacts. Having just opened on its London leg of the tour in March, the exhibition was paused due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It was meant to run through May 3rd at London's Saatchi Gallery but it has been postponed, along with the rest of the tour, until lockdown restrictions ease. Said argues that the 2017 contract between the Ministry of Antiquities and IMG, the parent company of Exhibitions International who organised the show, many have violated antiquities laws. At the time of the agreement, the law stated that objects could be loaned through an exchange with certain places like "museums, scientific institutions or states," not commercial bodies, given that the objects were not unique. The law was slightly relaxed in 2018 amendment but the contract was signed prior to that change. Said believes the show violates the law because the contract is an agreement with a private company, not a public body. Additionally, the unique nature of the items included is of concern. According to the BBC, who reported on the matter, IMG claimed the artefacts in the exhibition were not unique. Controversial Egyptologist Zahi Hawass, who played a large role in the development of the exhibition, is quoted as claiming "these touring artifacts aren't of any importance." However, this directly contradicts a quote from him used to promote the exhibition in which he said "each object is unique." If the lawsuit is successful, it has asked that all of the objects be returned to Egypt, voiding the rest of the tour. If the tour continues, the artefacts will continue to be shown around the world until 2024, when they will return to Egypt to be installed at the Grand Egyptian Museum set to open next year.


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Hafnium Isotopes Clinch Origin of High-Quality Roman glass - HeritageDaily - Archaeology News

Hafnium Isotopes Clinch Origin of High-Quality Roman glass

Glass is an immensely interesting archaeological material: While its fragility and beauty is fascinating in itself, geochemical studies of invisible tracers can reveal more than what meets the eye.

In a new international collaboration study from the Danish National Research Foundation's Centre for Urban Network Evolutions (UrbNet), the Aarhus Geochemistry and Isotope Research Platform (AGiR) at Aarhus University and the Danish-German Jerash Northwest Quarter Project (Aarhus University and University of Münster), researchers have found a way to determine the origin of colourless glass from the Roman period. The study is published in Scientific Reports.

The Roman glass industry was prolific, producing wares for drinking and dining, window panes and coloured glass 'stones' for wall mosaics. One of its outstanding achievements was the production of large quantities of a colourless and clear glass, which was particularly favoured for high-quality cut drinking vessels. The fourth-century Price Edict of the emperor Diocletian refers to colourless glass as 'Alexandrian', indicating an origin in Egypt. However, large amounts of Roman glass are known to have been made in Palestine, where archaeologists have uncovered furnaces for colourless glass production. Such furnaces have not been uncovered in Egypt, and hitherto, it has been very challenging to scientifically tell the difference between glass made in the two regions.

Now, an international collaboration led by Assistant Professor Gry Barfod from UrbNet and AGiR at Aarhus University has found the solution. Their work on Roman glass from the Danish-German Jerash Northwest Quarter Project in Jordan shows that the isotopes of the rare element hafnium can be used to distinguish between Egyptian and Palestinian glass and provide compelling evidence that the prestigious colourless glass known as 'Alexandrian' was indeed made in Egypt. Two of the co-authors of the publication, Professor Achim Lichtenberger (University of Münster) and Centre Director at UrbNet Professor Rubina Raja, head the archaeological project in Jerash, Jordan. Since 2011, they have worked at the site and have furthered high-definition approaches to the archaeological material from their excavations. Through full quantification methods, they have over and again shown that such an approach is the way forward in archaeology, when combining it with in context studies of various material groups. The new study is yet another testament to this approach.

"Hafnium isotopes have proved to be an important tracer for the origins of sedimentary deposits in geology, so I expected this isotope system to fingerprint the sands used in glassmaking", states Gry Barfod. Professor at Aarhus University Charles Lesher, co-author of the publication, continues: "The fact that this expectation is borne out by the measurements is a testament of the intimate link between archaeology and geology."

Hafnium isotopes have not previously been used by archaeologists to look at the trade in ancient man-made materials such as ceramics and glass. Co-author Professor Ian Freestone, University College London, comments, "These exciting results clearly show the potential of hafnium isotopes in elucidating the origins of early materials. I predict they will become an important part of the scientific toolkit used in our investigation of the ancient economy."

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Egypt’s choreography icon Mahmoud Reda dies at 89 | Mena – Gulf News

Egypt's choreography icon Mahmoud Reda dies at 89

In late 1950s, he co-founded Reda Troupe for folk dances that soon soared to popularity

Mahmoud Reda
Veteran Egyptian choreographer, dancer and actor Mahmoud Reda, who made history in folk dances, died Friday, July 10, 2020. Image Credit: Supplied

Cairo: Veteran Egyptian choreographer, dancer and actor Mahmoud Reda, who made history in folk dances, died Friday, the Egyptian actors' union said. He was 89.

Reda died from age-related illness, according to media reports.

He is fondly remembered for co-founding an Egyptian group for folk dance named after his family. In the late 1950s, Mahmoud and his brother Ali launched the Reda Troupe for Folk Dances staging shows inspired by a diversity of local dances and costumes in lower and upper Egypt.

Mahmoud Reda
Mahmoud Reda performs in a musical. Image Credit: Supplied

When it made its debut, the group comprised 26 male and female performers as well as 13 musicians. The group soon soared to renown.

In 1961, a republican decree was issued, making the Reda Troupe an affiliate of the Culture Ministry. The group has gained wide popularity in Egypt and starred in several popular Egyptian musicals including the "Mid-Year Holiday" and "Love in the Karnak" – the latter is set in Egypt's world-famed ancient city of Luxor.

The Egyptian Actors' Syndicate eulogised Reda, calling him a "legend of folk dance".

"Egyptian, Arab and world art has lost the legend of folk dance Mahmoud Reda who represented well his country on several international artistic arenas," the union said in a statement.

Egyptian Culture Minister Inas Abdul Dayam mourned his death, too. "He was one of folk art legends. His choreography expressed distinct spirit of Egyptian folk arts," the minister said in a statement.

Reda is survived by his daughter Sherin, who is a celebrated film and TV actress.

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Saturday, July 11, 2020

Egypt Centre Collection Blog: The Woking Loan at the Egypt Centre

Egypt Centre Collection Blog

Saturday, 4 July 2020

The Woking Loan at the Egypt Centre

The blog post for this week is written by Dr Dulcie Engel, a previous contributor. Dulcie is a former lecturer in French and linguistics and has been volunteering at the Egypt Centre for the last six years. She is a gallery supervisor and associate editor of the Volunteer Newsletter. She has a particular interest in collectors and the history of museums.

In May 2012, the Egypt Centre received a collection of fifty-eight ancient Egyptian objects from Woking Sixth Form College in Surrey, on an initial ten-year loan. The items were originally donated to Woking Girls' Grammar School in 1958. The school closed in 1976 when it was amalgamated with the Boys' School to form the basis of Woking Sixth Form College. Through documents and communications with some of the important players in Woking, and other interested parties, I have been able to piece together the story of these objects from their donation to the school in 1958 to the present day. 1958 was an important year for the Girls' School in Woking: founded in 1923, it finally moved from its original accommodation in six derelict army huts to brand new premises. Additionally, this is when the Egyptian items were donated to the school by Arthur and Margaret Marshall, school governors. Mrs Marshall was a former pupil who later became a town councillor. At the time, the school had an inspirational headmistress, Miss Violet Hill, who actively encouraged initiative in her pupils. One girl was particularly inspired by the Egyptian objects: Anna Bachelier became responsible for looking after the collection, and compiled the first 'museum' inventory. She used a basic cataloguing system of numbers, with labels for items, some of which still remain. She was also given permission to take the objects up to the British Museum for inspection. Anna went on to study archaeology at Cardiff and Edinburgh. She became a well-known archaeologist in Scotland under her married name of Dr Anna Ritchie. The School used the objects as teaching aids in Egyptian history, archaeology, and art classes.

Following the closure, amalgamation, and move to new premises in 1976 as Woking Sixth Form College, the objects were kept in the history department, and still used to teach archaeology and art. In particular, they were cared for by head of history Anne Bowey and her successor, Andrew Forrest. In 2001, Andrew made a new inventory and took the items back to British Museum for assessment by Dr John Taylor, Assistant Keeper at the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan. After researching their history and provenance, Andrew Forrest gave a talk on the collection to the College governors. When concerns were raised over display and insurance, the collection was placed in a bank safety deposit box in the Woking branch of Lloyds Bank. Andrew left the College in 2008 and in 2011 a change in bank policy led to the items being returned to the College (inside a sports bag). The then Principal, Martin Ingram, consulted the British Museum about the best home for the items, and the Egypt Centre was recommended because of its strong educational ethos. Shortly after, on 31 May 2012, the Woking Loan arrived at the museum (fig. 1).

Fig. 1: Original display of the Woking Collection at the Egypt Centre

It has proved far more difficult to discover how these objects came to be available for donation in the first place, although we can be pretty sure when and where some of them were excavated, and we can make reasonable guesses about how they came to the UK. We can also be fairly sure of the approximate age of many of the items. The two main contenders for ownership before the Marshalls of Woking are the Egyptologists Robert Mond and Flinders Petrie (Bierbrier 2019). However, it must be noted that this is speculation and we actually do not know how the pieces ended up in Woking. Anna Bachelier noted the possible Mond connection back in 1958, but later Anne Bowey notes the suggestion of a Petrie connection. Indeed, we know that some shabtis (fig. 2) came from an excavation directed by Petrie (see below). Mond sponsored excavations, such as those organised by the Egypt Research Account and Egypt Exploration Fund/Society, and would have been given some artefacts. Mond is known to have given away many items in his collection to both individuals and institutions. A Mond connection would be quite serendipitous as there is a strong connection between the Mond family and Swansea (see Engel 2020).

Fig. 2: Three shabtis during the unpacking process

The artefacts are catalogued as WK1–WK58. They were originally displayed together: now the items are placed in the appropriate cases in both galleries. The collection consists of 35 shabtis, 8 amulets, 5 pottery vessels, 3 coins, 2 fretwork wooden pieces, 2 glass bottles, 1 faience bell, 1 wooden Sokar hawk, and 1 faience flower pendant. Below I briefly discuss a selection of them:
With respect to the shabtis, the largest group of objects, 19 are made of faience, 11 of pottery, 4 of wood, and one of limestone (fig. 3). They date mainly from the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period. As some of the shabtis bear distinctive inscriptions and excavation labels, we can trace their provenance with confidence. For example, WK32 is inscribed Djed-Iset (Djedaset). It has a typed rectangular label on the back, reading: 'ZED-ASET'. Such labels were placed on shabtis distributed by the Egypt Research Account (ERA), set up and directed by Petrie. This shabti can be traced to the 1895–6 excavation of the Ramesseum by James Quibell (1867–1935), financed by the ERA (Janes 2002).

Fig. 3: Limestone shabti (WK34)

Visitors to the museum may well note the group of five faience shabtis, possibly carrying brick moulds. The painted items on the back are depicted in an unusual manner for seed bags, and as the replica brick mould placed next to them in the Technology case (House of Life) shows, the shape is the same (fig. 4). One of this group, WK 35, is inscribed Djed-Khonsu, but the others, which are not inscribed, are so similar that they must belong to the same group: (WK15–17 and WK56). They date from the Third Intermediate Period and range in height from 78–84mm. 

Fig. 4: Shabtis with possible brick moulds

Three of the pottery vessels date from the early Middle Kingdom. WK3 and WK5–6 are similar to each other: coarsely formed partly handmade Nile silt vessels (Nile fabric B2–C1) with slightly pointed ends, of fairly small size (ranging in height from 135 to 160mm). They are most likely to be model funerary vessels, shaped as beer jars. They are very similar to ones found in the foundation deposits of the pyramid of Senwosret I (Arnold 1988: 107–9).
The Bes bell (WK44) in the Music case is perhaps the object in the Woking Loan that has excited Egyptologists the most, particularly as it is relatively rare (fig. 5). It was also voted in 2019 as one of the thirty highlights of the museum and appears in the recently released Highlights booklet. It is a pale green faience bell, 37mm high, formed as a hollow hemispherical Bes head crowned with feathers, with a hole for suspension as well as another, presumably for the tongue of the bell. The tongue itself is missing. This particular item seems to date to the Ptolemaic Period based on parallels, including BM EA 66619 (Anderson 1976, 47). The fact that this is made from faience suggests it was a votive or amuletic item, as it would have been too fragile to shake vigorously. These bells were perhaps worn around the necks of children to protect them.

Fig. 5: Faience Bes bell (WK44)

A favourite of mine is the Sokar hawk (WK21), 96mm high, in the Woodworking case, which dates from the Late Period. The wood is coated in a layer of gesso and painted yellow, white, red, and green (fig. 6). There appears to be an excavation mark in black ink on the base, which reads 25/50. However, it is not an easily identifiable mark, and might well be a catalogue number from one of the earlier owners, or possibly an auction lot number. There is a hole in the base as these wooden birds would have been fixed with a wooden peg onto the base of a Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figure. The figures combine the powers of Ptah, a creator god (mummiform), Osiris, god of death, resurrection, and fertility (represented by the two feathers of his crown), and Sokar, the hawk-headed god of the cemeteries (the bird), particularly associated with Saqqara.

Fig. 6: Sokar hawk (WK21)

The story of the Woking Loan illustrates the lasting power of historical objects to inspire: Mrs Marshall knew her old school would make good use of the collection, and they did. Just as the original sponsors of the ERA and the EES (and individual excavators) knew that gifts of artefacts to museums, universities, and schools would. A far-seeing headmistress let a fifteen-year-old girl take these artefacts up to the British Museum, encouraging her passion, which led to a distinguished career in archaeology. Much later, a history teacher at the College was inspired to discover more about the collection and spread the word through lectures; again, he took these objects to the British Museum. Finally, when the College realised the need for a safer place for the artefacts, it led to another consultation with the British Museum, who recommended a home well-known for its educational programme with schoolchildren and students. Here in the Egypt Centre, object-centred learning has always been an important element of that programme. In normal times, school groups and members of the public can handle artefacts in the gallery; members of the public, museum volunteers, students, and scholars benefit from evening classes, talks, seminars, and conferences, which involve handling artefacts normally kept in display cases or in the stores.

I was due to give a talk on the Woking Loan at Woking College in March 2020 and at the Wonderful Things conference in Swansea in May 2020. Obviously the former never happened while the latter was moved to an online format. If you have any further information/suggestions about the provenance of the Woking Loan, please contact me via the Egypt Centre! I could not have done this research without the help of Egypt Centre staff, in particular Carolyn Graves-Brown, Ken Griffin, and Syd Howells. Additionally, Ancient History staff and researchers at Swansea: Christian Knoblauch, Nigel Pollard, and John Rogers. Nor my brilliant Woking correspondents: Richard & Rosemary Christophers at the Lightbox Gallery, Andrew Forrest, Anna Ritchie, the staff of Woking College; and John Taylor of the British Museum.

Anderson, Robert D. 1976. Catalogue of Egyptian antiquities in the British Museum III: musical instruments. London: Trustees of the British Museum.
Arnold, Dorothea 1988. Pottery. In Arnold, Dieter (ed.) The pyramid of Senwosret I, 106–146. Publications of the Metropolitan Museum of Art Egyptian Expedition 22; The South Cemeteries of Lisht 1. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
Bierbrier, Morris L. 2019. Who was who in Egyptology, 5th revised ed. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
Engel, Dulcie. M. 2020. The Mond family: Swansea & Egypt, Egypt Centre Volunteer Newsletter (Jan–Mar 2020).
Janes, Glenn 2002. Shabtis: a private view. Ancient Egyptian funerary statuettes in European private collections. Photographs by Tom Bangbala. Paris: Cybèle.
Quibell, James. E. 1898. The Ramesseum. British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account 2. London: Bernard Quaritch.
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Fwd: Meretseger Books Pictures of Egypt
On 07/05/2020 01:58 PM, Chuck Jones wrote:
Meretseger Books Pictures of Egypt Meretseger Books Pictures of Egypt
   Our private collection of over 15,000  pictures of
   most sites in Egypt is at your disposal, free of
   charge. You are welcome to use them in your
   publications, just mention:
   "Courtesy of".

 Just send us an email indicating what you are looking for and we'll be glad to assist.

You will find left and below galleries with watermarked downloadable pictures (available in higher resolution and without watermarking upon request).
Just write to François at:

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AWOL - The Ancient World Online: On the Origins of the Cartouche and Encircling Symbolism in Old Kingdom Pyramids

Saturday, July 11, 2020

On the Origins of the Cartouche and Encircling Symbolism in Old Kingdom Pyramids

On the Origins of the Cartouche and Encircling Symbolism in Old Kingdom Pyramids

Author: David Ian Lightbody. Paperback; 203x276mm; 100 pages; 47 figures. 118 2020. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789696578. Epublication ISBN 9781789696585.
Book contents pageDownload              Full PDF

On the Origins of the Cartouche and Encircling Symbolism in Old Kingdom Pyramids is a treatise on the subject of encircling symbolism in pharaonic monumental tomb architecture. The study focuses on the Early Dynastic Period and the Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt; from the first dynasty through the sixth. During that time, encircling symbolism was developed most significantly and became most influential. The cartouche also became the principal symbol of the pharaoh for the first time. This work demonstrates how the development of the cartouche was closely related to the monumental encircling symbolism incorporated into the architectural designs of the Old Kingdom pyramids. By employing a new architectural style, the pyramid, and a new iconographic symbol, the cartouche, the pharaoh sought to elevate his status above that of the members of his powerful court. These iconic new emblems emphasized and protected the pharaoh in life, and were retained in the afterlife. By studying the available evidence, the new and meaningful link between the two artistic media; iconographic and architectural, is catalogued, understood, and traced out through time.

Table of Contents
David Ian Lightbody, PhD., BEng (Hons), is an archaeologist with a special interest in the origins of architectural and scientific principles, most notably in the ancient Egyptian and Greek cultures. In 2016 he founded the Journal of Ancient Egyptian Architecture (JAEA) with co-editor Franck Monnier. He has published several journal articles, a monograph, and most recently, the Great Pyramid Haynes Operations Manual (2,590 B.C. onwards).
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Open Access users: by downloading this eBook you are agreeing to our standard terms and conditions available here.
Institutional subscribers: by downloading this eBook you are agreeing to abide by the subscription licence issued to The Institution. Contact your library for further details. If you encounter any issues with your download please contact 
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Bolton Museum opens tomorrow with a raft of safety measures in place | The Bolton News

Bolton Museum opens tomorrow with a raft of safety measures in place

By Saiqa Chaudhari Education Reporter

ONE of Bolton's most popular attractions will reopen this week with a raft of strict new health and safety measures in place.

Bolton Museum will welcome back its visitors on Tuesday, nearly four months after it closed to the public.

The easing of lockdown restrictions means the museum is now able to open with the borough's cultural bosses implementing a number of changes to keep people safe.

All the galleries will be open, including the celebrated Bolton's Egypt, which features thousands of ancient artefacts and a stunning recreating of the tomb of Thutmose III.

The Bolton News:

But visitor numbers will be restricted, visits will be limited to one hour and some games and interactive displays will remain off limits.

Hand sanitising stations will be available, a one-way system will aid social distancing while public toilets will be closed.

Museumgoers will be asked to provide their contact details when entering to help with track and trace.

Bolton Council's cabinet member with responsibility for libraries and museum, Cllr Hilary Fairclough, said: "There is something for everyone at Bolton Museum and we look forward to welcoming back visitors of all ages.

"Our Egyptology collection is up there with some of the best in the world and our art and natural history galleries are something everyone in Bolton should be proud of.

"Every safety precaution is being taken as we gradually reopen services to the public.

"I'm sure Bolton Museum will once again attract visitors to our area as we seek to recover from the pandemic and create a vibrant and thriving town centre."

The Bolton News:

The museum shop will be open

The museum will be open from 9am to 5pm from Tuesday to Friday and 10am to 4pm on Saturdays.

As part of the government's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Bolton Museum was closed to the public on March 23 along with all library buildings.

Since then, residents have been able to access a wide range of museum and library services from their own homes including 360 virtual tours.

The online programme will continue with museum object stories, story times and book chats.

The Bolton News:

Book browsing and public computers will also be available at Central Library.

Opening hours will be 9am to 6pm from Monday to Friday, and Saturday 10am to 4pm. Computer must be booked in advance by calling 01204 332853.

Last week, an order and collect system was introduced at Breightmet, Central, Farnworth, Harwood, Horwich, and Westhoughton libraries.

The council will continue to review when other services will reopen.

For more information about services reopening, visit the Bolton Library and Museum website or call 01204 332853.

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Thursday, July 9, 2020

New Report Finds Tutankhamun Show May Violate Antiquity Law –

Saatchi Gallery May Violate Egyptian Antiquity Laws: Report

Tessa Solomon