Monday, July 15, 2019

Egypt: Stopping the trade in our monuments - Heritage - Ahram Online

Egypt: Stopping the trade in our monuments

Measures to preserve Egypt's right to control the sale of ancient Egyptian antiquities abroad are at last being taken following the sale of an ancient head in London

Nevine El-Aref , Monday 15 Jul 2019
"Egyptian heritage is not for sale" chanted a group of protesters gathered outside the London-based Christie's Auction House as 32 ancient Egyptian artefacts went under the hammer last Thursday.

"The primary reason we are protesting is because this is a private sale. I don't mind seeing artefacts from Egypt in other museums. I don't even mind most Egyptian artefacts being in British museums as long as they are able to be viewed by everyone," one of the demonstrators told the UK Art Newspaper.

Another said on TV that he opposed the sale of Egyptian artefacts because Egyptian heritage was "not for sale." It should be returned to its homeland where it belongs, he said, adding that the objects "ethically belonged" to Egypt.

Yet, despite the protests and procedures invoked by the Egyptian authorities targeting Christie's and the British foreign office to stop the sale of these artefacts and provide ownership documents for them, the sale went ahead and 24 artefacts of the 32 have now been sold, among them the head of the god Amun with the facial features of the boy-king Tutankhamun. 

Earlier this week, the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities called for an urgent meeting of the National Committee for Antiquities Repatriation (NCAR) to discuss procedures to preserve Egypt's rights after the sale of these objects.

The committee, headed by Minister of Antiquities Khaled El-Enany, includes top officials from Egypt's ministries of foreign affairs, justice, and the interior, as well as the Prosecution-General Office, State Lawsuits Authority and former minister Zahi Hawass.

During the meeting, the committee expressed its indignation at "the unprofessional way in which the Egyptian artefacts were sold without the provision of ownership documents and proof that that the artefacts left Egypt in a legitimate manner". It also expressed "bewilderment that the British authorities failed to provide the support expected from it in this regard".

The committee has asked the British government for more cooperation in preventing the export of the Egyptian artefacts sold last week by Christie's from Britain before documentation of ownership is made available to Egypt as per the ongoing cooperation between both countries in the field of archaeology, especially as there are 18 British archaeological missions currently working in Egypt. 

It has also decided to ask a British law firm to take all the necessary legal procedures to file a civil lawsuit. It has expressed its appreciation for the decision taken by Egypt's prosecution service to ask the international police agency Interpol to issue a circular to track the sale of these artefacts in any country around the world. 

The Foreign Ministry is to issue directives to Egyptian embassies abroad both to monitor and observe these artefacts and notify the Egyptian authorities of their appearance in any country around the world and seek to ensure that they are seized pending inspection and verification of ownership documents.

Hawass described Christie's action in selling the objects as "a black point on the auction house's history, as the artefacts belong not only to the Egyptian civilisation but also to all humanity".

He told Al-Ahram Weekly that Prince Wilhelm von Thurn und Taxis, whom Christie's claims owned the objects, was dead and had never owned an antiquities collection. This "shows that Christie's does not have any evidence that the head was legally exported," he said. Hawass believes that the head was looted from the Karnak Temple during the 1970s.

The Live Science magazine website, which interviewed the family and friends of the prince and gathered documents on his life, reported that both Wilhelm's son and niece had confirmed that Wilhelm has never owned the sculpture. Furthermore, he had no interest in ancient artefacts, or art in general, it said.

"It would have been better for Christie's to stop the sale and return the objects to their homeland to be displayed in the Grand Egyptian Museum where the whole world can view and admire them instead of being sold into private collections," Hawass told the Weekly.

Heba Azizi, head of the Saving Egypt's Monuments Association who organised the protest before Christie's, told the Weekly that such a sale had led to demands to change one of the articles in the 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transport of Ownership of Cultural Property. 

The article, Azizi said, stipulates that "the States Parties undertake, at the request of the State Party of origin, appropriate steps to recover and return any such cultural property imported after the entry into force of this Convention in both States concerned, provided, however, that the requesting State shall pay just compensation to an innocent purchaser or to a person who has valid title to that property."

Shaaban Abdel-Gawad, head of the ministry's Antiquities Repatriation Department, said Germany had changed its law in 2017 to support the state party of origin and help it to recover stolen or smuggled heritage.

Over the past four years, Egypt had succeeded in repatriating 15,089 artefacts and 21,660 coins that were illegally smuggled out of the country, he said, and it would continue to do so. 

At the same time, it has signed international agreements and memorandums of understanding with Switzerland, the United States, Italy and Spain, as well as Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Cyprus, in the field of antiquities repatriation in an attempt to fight against the illicit trafficking of antiquities. 

 *A version of this article appears in print in the 11 July, 2019 edition of Al-Ahram Weekly under the headline: Stopping the trade in our monuments

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AWOL - The Ancient World Online: Rome in Egypt: Roman Temples for Egyptian Gods
On 07/15/2019 01:33 PM, Chuck Jones wrote:
Rome in Egypt: Roman Temples for Egyptian Gods  [First posted in AWOL 5 August 2013, updated (links to the most recent interation in the Internet Archive) 15 July, 2019]

Rome in Egypt: Roman Temples for Egyptian Gods
The availability of an updated repertory of the temples built in Egypt by Roman emperors for autochthonous cults is a fundamental tool for every kind of research on Roman Egypt. The Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Statues, Reliefs and Paintings, started by Bertha Porter and Rosalind Moss, shows Roman presence on more than 50 sacred buildings from the Nile Delta until the island of Bigeh. Intense and well known was also Roman activity in Nubia.

New subsequent archaeological researches make possible further enlargements of this picture: among many examples, it is sufficient to mention here the recent important discoveries in the oases of the Western Desert.

This site, outcome of a research project funded by the Italian Ministry for University and Research (MIUR) in 2004-2005 and directed by Edda Bresciani, aims to provide:

• A repertory of Roman temples in Egypt, from the Delta to Philae, with the most recently available information. The list of monuments and their bibliography are being continually updated.

• A multimedia research tool to make available, thanks to the Internet flexibility, plans, photographs, drawings, space oriented and navigable maps and links, related to the temples included in this site, wherever it is possible.

• A searching tool allowing to sort the information for geographical sites or for emperors, and to retrieve the bibliography for authors all over the website.

Only additional bibliography, absent in previous editions of the Topographical Bibliography, is given here. Porter-Moss (PM) reference, when existing, is mentioned at the beginning of each temple file.
At the moment, Nubian temples are not included in this site.

Rome in Egypt is an evolving Web resource. It is our hope that it becomes a starting point for future research on the subject. To do it, the cooperation with all the researchers working in the field of Egyptology, archaeology and Roman history is fundamental and we thank in advance all colleagues who will send us any new information and/or material.

Please see the News section of this Web site for periodic updates.

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AWOL - The Ancient World Online: Open Access Publications of The Inscriptions of the Temple of Edfu Project
On 07/15/2019 07:47 AM, Chuck Jones wrote:
Open Access Publications of The Inscriptions of the Temple of Edfu Project Open Access Publications of The Inscriptions of the Temple of Edfu Project
D. Kurth unter Mitarbeit von A. Behrmann, D. Budde, A. Effland, H. Felber, J.-P. Graeff, S. Koepke, S. Martinssen-von Falck, E. Pardey, S. Rüter und W. Waitkus: Die Inschriften des Tempels von Edfu. Abteilung I Übersetzungen; Band 2. Edfou VII, Harrassowitz Verlag 2004  (ISBN 978-3-447-05016-6)

D. Kurth unter Mitarbeit von A. Behrmann, A. Block, R. Brech, D. Budde, A. Effland, M. von Falck, H. Felber, J.-P. Graeff, S. Koepke, S. Martinssen-von Falck, E. Pardey, St. Rüter, W. Waitkus und S. Woodhouse: Die Inschriften des Tempels von Edfu. Abteilung I Übersetzungen; Band 3. Edfou VI, PeWe-Verlag 2014  (ISBN  978-3-935012-14-0)

A. Effland, M. von Falck, J.-P. Graeff, "Nunmehr ein offenes Buch..." - Das Edfu-Projekt. Herausgegeben zum 160. Geburtstag des Marquis Maxence de Rochemonteix (1849-1891), Hamburg 2009

A. Effland, M. von Falck, J.-P. Graeff, Das Edfu-Projekt. Inschriften des ptolemäerzeitlichen Tempels von Edfu, 7-33
A. Effland & J.-P. Graeff, Neues zur Lage von Behedet, 34-52
J.-P. Graeff, Einblicke in die Arbeit des Edfu-Projektes, 53-63
A. Lochte, Das Projekt von Außen gesehen, 64-67

Multimedia und Downloads

Diese Seite bietet Informationen und Downloads des Edfu-Projektes an, welche im weitesten Sinne mit der Arbeit des Projektes zu tun haben.

Unter Umständen werden hier jedoch auch andere Materialien ins Netz gestellt, welche nicht durch die Arbeit des Edfu-Projektes zustande gekommen sind.

Die Edfu-Datenbanken (Informationen)

Vector Office 2011 - Der offizielle Nachfolger von PerfectGlyph - Hieroglyphische Textverarbeitung. Günstige und leistungsfähigere Alternative zu WinGlyph.

Informationstexte zum Edfu-Projekt als PDF

Original EDFU-Bildschirmschoner

Die Edfu-Formulardatenbank (Upgrade)

Das Modell des Tempels von Edfu

360° Panorama des großen Hofes

Besuchen Sie den virtuellen Edfu-Tempel

Der virtuelle Edfu-Tempel (under construction). Der virtuelle Tempel benötigt mindestens einen Windows-PC mit Pentium III-500 CPU, 128 MB RAM, 3D video card (32+ MB), 3D sound card.
 Windows 98 SE / ME / 2000 / XP and DirectX 9.0c or above.

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China's "5,000 Years of History": Fact or Fiction?

China's "5,000 Years of History": Fact or Fiction?

Testing the Past (a literal translation of the Chinese word for archaeology, 考古 kaogu), is a new RADII column by archaeologist Michael Storozum exploring the ways in which this academic field is used to shape today's China.

Anyone with a cursory experience of China has likely heard of its much vaunted "5,000 years of history." Even President Donald Trump knows: when he came to China to meet with President Xi Jinping last in November 2017, Xi touted China's long, continuous history as being exceptional compared to other world cultures. Last week, the inclusion of the 5,300-year-old Liangzhu onto UNESCO's list of world heritage sites has revived the conversation in Chinese State-backed media. But how does this claim hold up under scientific and historical scrutiny?

The answer largely depends on how you define the question — namely, how you define "history."

History is usually defined as the beginning of a textual record, or written documents. In China, the first decipherable written documents date to the Shang dynasty, around 3,000 to 3,500 years ago. This language, the Jiaguwen, or Oracle Bone Script, is the antecessor of all subsequent written Chinese script, and there are remarkable similarities between Oracle Bone texts and subsequent written language in China, suggesting that this writing system is the origin of modern Chinese script. Although it is undisputed that the Oracle Bones are the progenitor of Chinese script, they're still nearly 2,000 years short of China's hypothetical 5,000 years of history.

So, a strictly historical explanation is clearly not viable — there's no science to support the claim.

Before the Shang dynasty and the development of the first historical records, there was a long prehistoric period in China. Archaeology, although often thought of as a field in the humanities or social sciences, heavily relies on methods in the physical sciences to understand cultural changes over time in ancient societies around the world. Since the discovery of China's Neolithic cultures in the early 1900s, archaeology in China has primarily focused on defining China's cultural history: the succession of different archaeological cultures (read: pottery styles) from the early Neolithic (around 10,000 years ago) to the start of the Han dynasty (around 2,200 years ago).

This chronology has been hugely contentious among archaeologists in China and around the world, in part because of a general lack of radiocarbon dates. Ancient carbon found at archaeological sites, when radiocarbon-dated, provides an absolute age for these sites, anchoring specific cultural developments in time. Only within the past several decades have there been enough radiocarbon dates to attempt to pinpoint the beginning of "Chinese civilization."


These Were China's Top 10 Archaeological Finds in 2017

In 1996, the Chinese government launched a project to determine the chronology of the origins of Chinese history. The Three Dynasties Chronology Project, as it's officially known, drew its inspiration from the incredibly robust chronology of ancient Egypt, where events and dynasties are often nailed down to the nearest year because of a long textual record (see Y.K. Lee's 2002 article "Building the Chronology of Early Chinese History", pp. 15-42, for more). The Chinese project attempted to provide a similarly robust chronology for China's first Three Dynasties: the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties in Central China, where archaeologists recovered the first evidence of the Oracle Bones. However, there were a number of problems with the general approach to the project.


Click-through: 3D-Rendered Oracle Bones from the British Library

First and foremost, the Xia dynasty is a mythical period of time. The only evidence of the Xia comes from historical texts that post-date this period by thousands of years (see "The Myth of the Xia Dynasty" by Sarah Allan for more). While archaeologists have recovered primary documents from the excavation of Shang and Zhou dynasty sites, no primary textual records have ever been recovered from Xia dynasty sites.

Second, the development of Chinese "civilization" did not happen in just one place. Just as in the recent past, people have migrated across the area known as modern China for thousands of years, bringing with them new ideas and cultural mores, making the focus on Central China detrimental to the project. Unsurprisingly, this project proved much more complex than originally conceived.

More recently, the government launched a successor to the "Three Dynasties" project — the "Origins of Chinese Civilization" project — which uses a wide range of scientific methods to develop a more complete body of knowledge concerning the developmental trajectory of ancient societies in both north and south China (see Yuan Jing and Rod Campbell's paper "Recent archaeometric research on 'the origins of Chinese civilisation'" for more on this).

Chinese "civilization" did not happen in just one place… people have migrated across the area known as modern China for thousands of years, bringing with them new ideas and cultural mores

A perfect example of the complexity in determining China's historical record is the Liangzhu site, an ongoing archaeological project in southern China that lends support to China's claim of 5,000 years of history.

Last Saturday, Liangzhu was designated a UNESCO world heritage site, recognizing its status as an exceptional case of an early "state" in southern China. The Liangzhu site, located outside of Hangzhou, dates back over 5,000 years, and is one of the earliest and most complex Neolithic archaeological sites in China.

Many art forms associated with ancient China, such as the engraved jade tubes (cong) and discs (bi) found at the Liangzhu site, are also found throughout Shang and Zhou dynasty sites in Central China, indicating Liangzhu's deep connection to "Chinese" cultural values. While archaeologists have known about this site for many decades, only recently have radiocarbon dates been published, earning the site and the Liangzhu culture widespread acceptance as one of the most complex Neolithic cultures in China. Investigations into Liangzhu are just now ramping up, and we should expect to see more work that reveals Liangzhu's deep connections to China's "5,000 years of history," work motivated in some part by a mandate to put Chinese civilization on the same "level" as ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.

In other words: if we really push the boundaries of the historical and archaeological records, Chinese "civilization" can be said to have a 5,000-year history, but this interpretation bends the facts in important ways. From a historical perspective, the first drips of a continuous historical record begin around 3,500 years ago, and a fully realized and still extant historical record really starts only with the Han dynasty, around 2,000 years ago. From the scientific perspective offered by archaeology, the absolute chronology goes back thousands and thousands of years, but does not necessarily reveal a continuous Chinese identity.

While sites like Liangzhu are found within China's modern political borders, and have some similarities to material culture found elsewhere within the country, archaeologists have no way of directly knowing how the ancient Liangzhu people or other peoples in prehistory conceived their own identity. China in the deep past was a diverse place, full of many different types of people who likely thought of themselves in a wide variety of ways. Complex societies like Liangzhu lived within the modern political boundaries of China, but 5,000 years ago, the people who lived in China were not bound by our modern political boundaries or our deeply changed ecologies. They lived in a world largely alien to us.

Complex societies like Liangzhu lived within the modern political boundaries of China, but 5,000 years ago, the people who lived in China were not bound by our modern political boundaries or our deeply changed ecologies. They lived in a world largely alien to us.

The cultural achievements of ancient peoples living within the modern-day political boundaries of China are certainly impressive, and stretch back in time thousands and thousands of years. From a scientific perspective, however, the entire premise of "5,000 years of continuous history" leaves much to be desired. Rather than reveal a continuous culture from 5,000 years ago to the present, new scientifically-oriented archaeological research into China's deep past will likely reveal a long history of migrations, intermixing populations, and diverse interactions that have helped create modern-day China.

Cover image: Jade cong from the Liangzhu culture(Neolithic) in Zhejiang Museum

Further reading:

Allan, S., 1984. The myth of the Xia Dynasty. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 116(2), pp.242-256.

Lee, Y.K., 2002. Building the chronology of early Chinese history. Asian Perspectives, pp.15-42.

Jing, Y. and Campbell, R., 2009. Recent archaeometric research on 'the origins of Chinese civilisation'. Antiquity, 83(319), pp.96-109.

Liu, B., Wang, N., Chen, M., Wu, X., Mo, D., Liu, J., Xu, S. and Zhuang, Y., 2017. Earliest hydraulic enterprise in China, 5,100 years ago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(52), pp.13637-13642.

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Abdel Dayem to inaugurate Naguib Mahfouz Museum on July.14 - Egypt Today
File - Naguib Mahfouz Museum. File - Naguib Mahfouz Museum.

Abdel Dayem to inaugurate Naguib Mahfouz Museum on July.14

Sun, Jul. 14, 2019

CAIRO – 14 July 2019: Minister of Culture Inas Abdel Dayem will inaugurate the Naguib Mahfouz Museum at the Tkeit Abu el-Dahab building in Al-Azhar district on Sunday, July 14.

The opening of the much anticipated museum comes in conjunction with Egypt's celebrations of the June 30 revolution, in the presence of the veteran writer Yusuf Al-Qaid, head of the Cultural Development Fund Dr. Fathi Abdel Wahab and head of the Civil Coordination Authority Mohamed Abu Saada.

Abdel Dayem previously stated that the Ministry of Culture faced many challenges until the completion of all the works and equipment of the Naguib Mahfouz Museum; stressing that what has been achieved is a pride for all Egyptians, as it also embodies the nation's belief in the need to preserve the historical vocabulary that formed its soft power through its prominent writers throughout history.

The Minister of Culture also referred to re-shaping and beautification of the area facing the museum through a mural carried out by the National Authority for the coordination of civilization in cooperation with the province of Cairo.

The Naguib Mahfouz Museum consists of two floors, the first hosts halls for seminars, a Visual/ sound library, a public library and a library of critical research including the most important researches and studies on the work of Naguib Mahfouz.

The second floor includes a suite of decorations and certificates obtained by the late writer, and another for his personal belongings with some papers written in his own handwriting, in addition to the Hall of literature, which includes all the works of Naguib Mahfouz in their old and new prints, along with all the writer's translated works next to a cinema hall and several other halls.

It is worth mentioning that a total of 50 newly discovered short stories written by the Egyptian Noble Laureate Mahfouz, were published on December 11, 2018.

The newly discovered short stories were found by the late writer's daughter, Um Kulthum Naguib Mahfouz, and culture journalist Mohamed Shoair.

The short stories collection were published by Lebanese publishing house Dar Al-Saqi under the title "Hams El-Nogoom" (Whispering of the Stars).

Dar Al-Saqi announced it acquired the rights to publish Mahfouz's short stories from his daughter.

Author of 34 novels, over 350 short stories, five plays and dozens of movie scripts, Mahfouz was by all means the most disciplined writer ever.

He wrote for one hour daily throughout his 70-year career, smoked three cigarettes per day and walked by the Nile every morning.

He met weekly with the new generation of writers, artists, and readers through an informal seminar, which is a habit he developed in the 1950's.

At the age of 82, Mahfouz was stabbed in the neck in 1994 by an Islamic extremist in an assassination attempt following a huge wave of hatred that followed the fatwah (Religious statement) issued by Ayat Allah Khomeini of Iran against Arab/English author Salman Rushdi over his famous book "Satanic Verses".

Khomeini decreed that Salman Rushdi should be killed for writing that novel. Naguib Mahfouz, in spite of considering the novel disrespectful to Islam, took a position against inciting violence against Rushdi.

This incident, however, directed attention to Mahfouz's controversial novel "Awlad Haretna" (The Chidren of Our Avenue), which was deemed as one of the most famous novels in the history of Arabic literature.

The novel spoke about God, the prophets and creatively explained the philosophy of religion.

The controversy came from his design of the character of Gebelawi, a wealthy landowner and a harsh father who is negligent to his descendants, leaving them in poverty and misery, and appointing the dark son Adham to run the business instead of Idris the eldest son.

The novel relays the story of Adam and Satan, then the quarrel between Satan and God, and later mentions the story of Kane and Abel where he kills his brother and the grandfather refuses to interfere.

The stories of the prophets of the main religions, Moses, Jesus and Mohamed, continue. He changes the names brilliantly with clear hints to which religious personality he is handling in each new chapter.

He avoids the miracles, and humanizes the struggles in efforts to make the story about fighting for the rights of the poor who are all sons of Gebelawi and have equal rights to wealth.

Mahfouz was blunt in expressing his ideas; he discussed politics, history and philosophy in his novels. He covered a lot of subjects such as socialism, homosexuality, and God. Mahfouz's novels were informative and showed the development of Egypt in the 20th century.

Mahfouz's first novel was "Khufu's Wisdom". He wrote 35 novels afterwards and 15 collections of short stories alongside with "Echoes of an Autobiography" in 1994, according to an article by AUC Press.

The iconic literary author did not only abide by writing short stories and novels, but also took the initiative to work on 25 film screenplays that featured specific writing techniques such as flashbacks.

The Egyptian cinema has created over 30 Egyptian films that were based on Mahfouz's novels and literary works.

He also wrote weekly columns in state-owned newspapers Al-Ahram and Al-Ahram Weekly in 1971, including "Naguib Mahfouz at Sidi Gaber: Reflections of a Nobel Laureate 1994- 2001".

Mahfouz was honored by the government; he received the Egyptian State Prize twice for his writings.

Promoting great collections of Arabic narratives locally and internationally, Mahfouz received other countless awards including one from the American University in Cairo and an honorary doctorate in 1995.

He was chosen as an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Institute of Arts.

Following his death, Mahfouz's works further resonated in the Egyptian literary scene. AUC Press became his main English language publisher and agent of all translation rights. The agreement was signed with Mahfouz prior to his death.

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AWOL - The Ancient World Online: Open Access Journal: Egyptian journal of archaeological & restoration studies (EJARS)
On 07/11/2019 01:12 PM, Chuck Jones wrote:
Open Access Journal: Egyptian journal of archaeological & restoration studies (EJARS)  [First posted in AWOL 2 November 2011. Updated 11 Jul 2019]

Egyptian journal of archaeological & restoration studies (EJARS)
National ISSN: 18178/2010
International ISSN: 2090-4932
Online ISSN: 2090-4940
The Egyptian Journal of Archaeological and Restoration Studies (EJARS) is an International Journal issued by Center of Archaeological and Conservation Studies and Research (ACSRC) - Sohag University. 

The international journal EJARS Encourage international discussion on several fields such as archaeological problems, Conservation science, coupling between archaeology, archaeometry and management of Conservation projects.

It focuses on the Arabian, African and Mediterranean regions and presents an international forum of research, innovations, discoveries, applications and meetings concerning the modern approaches to the study of human past. Also, the journal focuses on a specific new methodology in archaeological and restoration fields

Volume 9 Issue 1(Current)

It is our owner to introduce the 9th volume - issue (1) of EJARS. This volume comprises 9 articles in restoration and archaeological fields. 5 in the Restoration field, 2 articles in Egyptology & 2 in Islamic Archaeology.
Download PDF
Amin, E.

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El-Badry, A.

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Omar, A., Taha, A.& El-Wekeel, F.

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Elsayed, Y.

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Hamed, S.

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Abou Zaid, O.

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Eltoukhy, M.

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Abd al-razik, M.
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Hagras, H.

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A number of stone, pottery and wooden coffins were uncovered near Amenemhat II pyramid - Egypt Today
File - one of the discovered coffins. File - one of the discovered coffins.

A number of stone, pottery and wooden coffins were uncovered near Amenemhat II pyramid

Sat, Jul. 13, 2019

CAIRO – 13 July 2019: The Ministry of Antiquities managed to discover an ancient winding wall that extends about 60 meters to the east of Amenemhat II pyramid. This wall is considered an important architectural element that dates back to the Middle kingdom era.

coffin 3

A number of stone, pottery and wooden coffins were also found, some of which had mummies which were uncovered in good condition, in addition to a number of wooden masks some of them are incomplete and a set of tools that were used in cutting and polishing.

coffin 4

The Middle Kingdom era is called the era of economic prosperity because of many economic projects, such as irrigation, trade, industry and agriculture.

Among the most famous kings of the Middle Kingdom were King Mentuhotep II, who restored the unity of the country and spread security after the chaos that plagued Egypt in the era of the Old Kingdom, and King Senusret III, who was one of the greatest kings of Egypt. Senusret III took care of the army to protect Egypt and led many campaigns to secure its borders.

He also ordered the digging of the Sesostris Canal to link the Red Sea and the Nile, as well as building a dam to protect the land in Fayoum from the flood.

The Sesostris Canal was the source of the idea to build the Suez Canal to connect the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, which became the most important navigational channel in the world and an important source of income for Egypt.

King Amenemhat III ruled from c. 1860 BCE to c. 1814 BCE. He was interested in agriculture and irrigation, and he ordered the building of the first pyramid at Dahshur, the so-called "Black Pyramid", near Fayoum.

Around the 15th year of his reign, the king decided to build a new pyramid at Hawara, as well as a huge temple called "Labyrinth," named so due to the large number of rooms, roads and corners inside it, making it difficult for any visitor to exit.

Unfortunately, as a result of the kings' weaknesses and greed, chaos spread in the country, which allowed the Hyksos, who came from Asia, to occupy Northern Egypt.
The Hyksos abused the Egyptians very much and destroyed many temples and several ancient antiquities.

The Egyptians were determined to fight and expel the Hyksos from their country. The struggle started from Upper Egypt, led by Seqenenre Tao, who was martyred in the war with the Hyksos, but his wife Ahhotep encouraged the Egyptians to continue the struggle. She urged her eldest son, Kamose, to continue the struggle, but he was also martyred in one of the battles. Then, the army was taken over by the younger son of Seqenenre Tao, Ahmose I, who continued to fight the Hyksos until they were expelled from Egypt. He then ruled the country.

One of the greatest civilizations throughout history is the ancient Egyptian civilization, which has stunned the entire world for ages. During the Middle Kingdom era, when Egypt was at the highest degree of culture and development, and kings were interested in projects of benefit to the people, handicrafts were developed and literature and art flourished.

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Flight Over Egypt's Ancient Pyramids - British Pathé

(Click on the above link to play video)

  • Short Summary

    Aerial views of ancient Egyptian pyramids

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    SLATE INFORMATION: Egypts Pyramids


    Video Roll Title: Egypt's Pyramids unique view of world's most ancient monuments: 85ft Issue sheet title: EGYPT'S PYRAMIDS - UNIQUE VIEW OF THE WORLD'S MOST ANCIENT MONUMENTS
    Pyramids: Flight over Egypt's ancient pyramids.



    Aerial views of pyramids


    Aerial Photography, Buildings, Landmarks and Monuments

    aerials,… more

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Saturday, July 13, 2019

Egypt- Jewellery in Nubian spirit | MENAFN.COM

Egypt- Jewellery in Nubian spirit

(MENAFN - Daily News Egypt) Born in Nubia, specifically from the village of Maria, she fell in love with Nubians and their heritage. She complemented her passion with study to design jewellery with a Nubian spirit to preserve its identity and keep pace with the changes of the era to produce a costume with a national character.

Hagar Nabil graduated from the Faculty of Fine Arts, Department of Decor and Interior Architecture in 2003, and received her master's degree in decoration and a doctorate in ancient Egyptian art.

After graduating, she worked as a decorative engineer. In 2005, she went to study jewellery and learned about ancient Egyptian religion and hieroglyphics at the Faculty of Archaeology in order to understand the significance of ancient art pieces and to use them in pieces of jewellery. She received several grants from the UAE and the European Union to study the art of jewellery. Daily News Egypt interviewed Hagar Nabil, the transcript for which is below, lightly edited for clarity:

How were your first steps toward art?

I liked painting and art from a young age. My first wish was to join the Faculty of Fine Arts after high school. I achieved my dream and studied in the Department of Interior Decoration and Architecture.

How do you approach jewellery design after working in the field of decoration?

The study of arts is close, and the foundations of design with all the arts are fixed, and my studies of interior architecture exposed me to theatre and its decorations, which was close to the art of jewellery.

At the doctoral stage, I studied in the Department of Art History, which allowed me to see various arts. I studied Pharaonic and Islamic styles, Arabic calligraphy, the art of jewellery, and the art of ceramics. In fact, it was an opportunity to enrich my culture from every art, including the art of jewellery.

But the story began as a student, as I liked to wear pieces of my design, I put ideas and elements of the Nubian environment into them. I made them at silver shops near college in Zamalek.

What bothered me so much was that I found these pieces in the shop's products, because I would love to wear my own pieces and my designs.

Unfortunately, there is no intellectual property right in Egypt that protects the rights of designers, and we still suffer from that.

Did the Nubian environment affect your work, be it decoration or jewellery?

I did not live in Nubia, because I belong to the old Nubia that was displaced, but I inherited it as part of the family's legacy of the pieces of jewellery, clothes, customs, and traditions that are still our own.

I inherited the love of jewellery. Nubia is rich with its jewellery and costumes. Gold is also famous in Nubia. Nubia in Coptic language means gold, so Nubia was the place where ancient Egyptians brought gold. Hence, it was called the land of gold.

What materials did the Nubian jeweller use?

Nubian ornaments were originally gold and then gold was replaced with silver, but there are still a few, as Nubian women love gold. With the decline of economic conditions, they began to use copper tipped gold.

Did the Nubian jeweller leave many ornaments?

Unfortunately, many pieces of jewellery bearing the Nubian heritage were sold, smelted, and re-put in new gold works, and a few of them remain in museums.

How did you move into professional life?

After graduating from college, I met one of the Nubian ladies and she owned a shop selling jewellery and accessories in Zamalek. She admired my work and I started designing for her and doing the pieces in her own workshop.

My work was accepted and was popular among the ladies, and I produced for many of them.

She advised me to turn to jewellery, and indeed I studied the design of jewellery and learned more by visiting the workshops. I also identified different types stones and met the best workers in each stage of jewellery making.

I dealt with industrialists and learned at the hands of a Jewish jeweller of the highest form in his time, I learned the art of gold and silver from the beginning, from the determination of the calibre through to the casting and the formation to complete the implementation of the piece and the polishing and installation of stones.

Were you designing and making your own pieces or using the help of workers?

I stayed for a long time until the revolution dealing with a workshop and only created the designs.

I did not implement any pieces of jewellery myself, but I learned a lot from this and other people and studied every corner in the field, which enabled me to move to a new stage in my life, especially after this craftsman stopped working after the revolution.

I also suffered a lot from people stealing my designs and imitating them in the market, so I had to rely on myself and start a new training phase to implement in my own workshop.

How did you start?

I received a grant from the UAE to study the basics of jewellery, and then got courses in design at the Jewellery Technology Centre at the ministry of commerce and industry.

I also received a grant from the European Union for the design of jewellery under the name of the Prime Project to promote training among generations in Mediterranean countries.

For a year and a half, I was trained to carry out the pieces myself without any intervention from anyone. It was an important stage to gain experience in implementation and to create my own style.

After that, I owned a special workshop, and I have a factory that implements my designs and sometimes I try to implement some of them. It is important that the industrialist feels that you can dispense with them and that you have the experience to carry out any piece of jewellery.

What are these "motif" elements and Nubian forms that you use in your work?

Most of my pieces tend to carry Nubian heritage, as it was linked to the environment and life so all of its elements are composed of the triangle to express the Nile water or the pyramid. I also use the sun in two forms, one of triangles, and another made of circles. I also use Nubian art in abstract.

What pieces of Nubian jewellery did women prefer to wear in the past?

Nubian women were so proud of their jewellery that they wore a part of it during their long hard days in the field.

The bride wore the palm or the rings and bracelets connected to them with a chain covering the back of the hand, and the woman wore the "story of the Rahman" and it is one of the pieces presented to the bride for marriage, a piece of triangular gold placed on the front and worn only by married women. The groom also offers his bride in morning an anklet made of silver.

The Jagged necklace is the most important piece for the Nubian bride, consisting of six flat pieces and round gold beads, in the centre of which is the main medal. Most of the gold beads in Nubian jewellery originated in the Pharaonic era.

The Nubian woman wore the "pia" necklace, a symbol of the grand stature. The pia consists of six phalanx-shaped pendants, which together form a complete girdle engraved with prominent stars and crescents. The famous Nubian olives are placed between the necklaces.

The Nogar necklace is one of the most common pieces for Nubian women. It was used as an antidote to envy, resembling tablets decorated with five-pointed flowers.

What is the technique the people of Nubia use in making jewellery?
They use carving on metal whether for protruding designs or engraved designs, or using meals in simple forms in Nubian jewellery, which is limited to only the outer frame of the piece.

Nubian jewellers have also used stone paste in studs in pieces of jewellery instead of precious stones.

The enamel was not used in the jewellery of Nubian women, rather, I used it in pieces to keep up with modernity and is met with demand by the younger generations

What are the disadvantages of Nubian jewellery?
I cannot say disadvantages as every art has elements that govern it and its people, but I can point out that the cutting of Nubian ornaments such as folk ornaments, which are large and heavy, are no longer met with demand by women currently.

How would you address people abroad if you had to?
I see that the best thing I do in my designs is to convey the spirit of the Egyptian Nubian environment in my work, and the Egyptian environment is rich with arts, including the jewellery of the Pharaonic, Nubia, folk, Islamic, and Coptic eras.

I try to design pieces of jewellery bearing the national character and Egyptian content to reach people and foreigners admire arts that they have not grown up with.

An example is the art of Naguib Mahfouz; he started local then became global. He used language and the Arab warm heritage in his work, and it was admired.

The same goes for making jewellery, which reflects Egyptian heritage.

I travelled extensively abroad and I wore a costume of my design, and it was admired by Arab women, and some of them asked me to make them similar pieces.

Indeed, I executed some of the designs they asked me to do, and that happened in many countries such as Kuwait, Qatar, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia.

How did you face inflation and the low purchasing power of citizens recently?
I have tried a lot to reduce my profit margin, especially since the artistic aspect is more important to me than the commercial aspect. The high prices of raw materials led to the high cost of jewellery pieces.

But I also produce pieces of jewellery according to the ability of customers and I have a variety of raw materials. The implementation of the piece of gold with another metal is preferably silver or copper-plated gold.

Most of my clients prefer to wear gold-plated copper pieces.

What were the most important requests of artists you worked with?
Recently, there has been an increased demand by artists for Nubian jewellery, some of which were the beginning of my dealing with diamond-cut pieces, but they changed their minds and preferred to wear the Nubian heritage of gold and silver.

Some female celebrities have pointed out that they wore pieces of your design in Ramadan. Tell us more about that.

Heba Al-Abbasiri wore my Cobra necklace and earring from the Queen's collection that combines the lotus and the snake. She wore it during the events of TV series "Alamet Estefham" (Question Mark). I consider her the mascot of this collection.

Wafaa Amer has also worn a Nubian earring during the events of the series of "Hekayty" (My Story) 2019. International artist Elise Lebec also wore an earring and necklace of my design.

Eman Al Sherif, Director of Corporate Responsibility at the Egyptian Banking Institute at the Central Bank of Egypt also work a necklace and ring from the collection "Al-Tali" during the World Conference of Entrepreneurship in South Africa. She received compliments by many attendees who saw her wearing the pieces, according to her.

Others who wore my work were Maha Bahnasy, Dina Nosseir, Asmaa Abou El Yazed, Sahar Noah, and others.

What is the most important collection you launched?
They were "Allah Mahaba" (God is Love), "Beit Nuby" (Nubian House), "Al Maleka" (The Queen), and "Al Tali" (Next).

The collection of the queen combines the lotus flower and the cobra, which - in the ancient Egyptian civilisation - symbolises the daughter of Ra and his eyes. Cobras were placed on the crowns of the kings of Egypt and above their brows to protect them. Cobras protected Ra from the forces of chaos and darkness.

Why have you not tried to work at major jewellery companies?
Working in big companies kills creativity and transforms the designer into an employee, and deprives the designer of his moral right to develop design ratios, to the point that he cannot put his name on his designs and people never know who the designer is.

Designers are restricted and will only be able to implement their ideas under the directions of the marketing department. Companies are always looking for "high-selling" pieces, which turns creative work into a business.

Additionally, when you work on your own you are establishing your own brand, and you have the right to risk introducing new products with ideas which differ from the market, and that gives success another taste.

What is the next step?
I am thinking of creating an jewellery exhibition with a flair of different arts, bringing together the pharaonic, Islamic, folk, and Nubian designs and so on.

What is your advice for new designers?
Studying, reading, and not rushing. Designers need more time to gain experience, as well as learning and going through many experiences.

A quick success means a quick failure.


--   Sent from my Linux system.

In Photos - Egypt: New museums to open in Sharm El-Sheikh and Hurghada - Heritage - Ahram Online

In Photos - Egypt: New museums to open in Sharm El-Sheikh and Hurghada

The Ministry of Antiquities has ambitious plans to establish and renovate a number of museums in different governorates this year in order to promote tourism in Egypt, writes Nevine El-Aref.

Nevine El-Aref , Saturday 13 Jul 2019

Among the most important museums that will be completed and opened soon in Egypt are the Sharm El-Sheikh and Hurghada museums, considered to be the first museums to be run in partnership with the private sector.

Construction work began on the Sharm El-Sheikh Museum in 2006 but stopped in 2009 due to architectural problems and then the lack of a budget in the aftermath of the 2011 Revolution. Work resumed early this year with a budget of LE300 million.

Elham Salah, head of the Museums Sector at the Ministry of Antiquities, said that the museum was originally a one-storey building with several halls but after its redesign it was now divided into two large galleries on two levels.

The first one is 1,200 sq m and displays a collection of ancient Egyptian artefacts embodying the topic of life and afterlife in ancient Egypt as well as the relations of the ancient Egyptians to animals. The second hall will put on show objects from Egypt's different civilisations as well as topics such as the ancient Silk Roads.

Among the most important artefacts, Salah said, were the Hathour column, which will be the core of the museum, as well as a head of Tuthmoses II and a collection of mummified animals.

The area outside the museum has been allocated for landscaping, bazaars, and restaurants and cafeterias to attract tourists to the coastal city in the evening. A centre to produce and display Sinai handicrafts will also be established.

Salah said that the museum would be equipped with a state-of-the-art security system with surveillance cameras monitoring the museum minute-by-minute over 24 hours.

Mahmoud Mabrouk, the designer of the museum's displays, said that it would provide a "light cultural meal" for tourists in its two halls. He said the pieces would be carefully selected according to the highest standards in order to reflect the way the ancient Egyptians lived thousands of years ago.

The museum would display home items such as beds and dining tables. Jewellery and ornments of kings, priests, citizens and peasants would also be displayed. Cosmetics would be shown through a collection of wigs and other items.

Mabrouk said that part of the hall would be dedicated to the afterlife through a collection of funerary furniture. A complete example of a tomb would be on show to explain to visitors the idea of ​​the afterlife and what it represented for the ancient Egyptians.

"Wildlife and how the ancient Egyptians respected animals will also be on show," Mabrouk told Al-Ahram Weekly, explaining that animal mummies discovered at the end of last year at the Saqqara Necropolis, such as cats, hawks, eagles, crocodiles, rats and cobras, would be on show.

He said that tourists visiting the museum would have a good idea of how the ancient Egyptians lived and how life developed through the different ages.

The second hall would include items from all the civilisations that Egypt has hosted through its long history and would be called the Hall of Civilisations. It would include artefacts from the Graeco-Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods, in addition to civilisations that did not settle in Egypt, but passed through on the ancient Silk Roads, such as the Chinese civilisation.

Mabrouk said that a complete Roman bath would be displayed. When the Romans came to Egypt, he said, there were popular baths, including steam rooms, discussion rooms, and bathtubs, and these survived into the later Islamic era.

A model of an Ottoman bedroom would also be on show, along with one of desert life such as tents from Sinai and Siwa. 


The Hurghada Museum is the most prominent project implemented by the ministry in partnership with the private sector. 

Hisham Samir, advisor to the minister of antiquities on civil engineering, said that the construction of the museum was nearing completion and that the ministry's requirements to secure the building were being implemented through installing a state-of-the-art security system equipped with surveillance cameras and alarms.

Private investors had provided the building according to ministry requirements and offered it to put on show the artefacts and transform the building into an archaeological museum, he said.

"The Ministry of Antiquities will be the sole authority responsible for the management and security of the Hurghada Museum collection, as well as anything related to antiquities, such as exhibition halls, and the maintenance and restoration labs," Salah said, explaining that private investors would be responsible for facilities and services and share profits equally with the ministry.

The decision of the ministry to operate the new museum in partnership with the private sector aims to support and promote tourism in Hurghada, especially given the lack of public financial resources for the establishment of the project. Many archaeological projects were put on hold in Egypt after 25 January 2011, because of costs and incomplete construction work.

Salah said that the museum was a one-storey building designed according to the highest international standards and covering an area of 3,000 ​​sq m to exhibit a collection of 1,042 artefacts brought from various storehouses in the Red Sea area and beyond.

"Under the title of 'Beauty and Luxury', the museum will have displays showing the beauty and luxury of ancient Egyptian civilisation through its different dynasties," she said. It would display artefacts that embody the comfort of the house and furniture and cosmetics used by the ancient Egyptians such as hair accessories, wigs, creams, perfumes and jewellery.

Sports such as hunting and fishing as well as musical instruments and scenes from dance and musical performances from the Pharaonic era to modern times would be on show. A model showing how perfume was made and showing how the ancient Egyptians decorated their tombs would also be exhibited. 

New museums              opening

New museums              opening

New museums              opening

New museums              opening

New museums              opening

New museums              opening

New museums              opening

 *A version of this article appears in print in the 11 July, 2019 edition of Al-Ahram Weekly under the headline: New museum openings

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--   Sent from my Linux system.