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Saturday, January 20, 2018

Ancient Egyptian Queen Neithhotep, Narmer’s wife - Egypt Today


https://www.egypttoday.com/Article/4/40455/Ancient-Egyptian-Queen-Neithhotep-Narmer's-wife
Statue of Queen Neithhotep's face – Photo courtesy of        Pinterest Statue of Queen Neithhotep's face – Photo courtesy of Pinterest

Ancient Egyptian Queen Neithhotep, Narmer's wife

Thu, Jan. 18, 2018

CAIRO – 18 January 2018: Figures of ancient Egypt are well known all over the world because of their extraordinary contributions to civilization. Egypt Today presents in a series of articles ancient Egypt's greatest queens.

In the previous articles, Egypt Today shed light on the lives of Tutankhamen's wife and half-sister, Ankhesenamun; the first Egyptian female ruler, Queen Merneith, also known as Meritneith and Meryt-Neith; and Queen Hetepheres I. Today's chosen queen is Neithhotep, the wife of Narmer.

Neithhotep is considered the first identified Egyptian queen by historians, according to researcher and author Ismail Hamed.

She was the first queen of the First Dynasty founded by her husband Narmer or Menes, according to researcher, archaeologist and author Joshua J. Mark of Ancient History Encyclopedia.

One of the main reasons for the marriage between Narmer and Neithhotep was due to Narmer's interest to enhance his authority over the lands of Lower Egypt, as Neithhotep was one of Lower Egypt's princesses, while Narmer was one of Upper Egypt's Kings.

Most probably, the marriage happened after Narmer's victory over the rulers of the north, and after he crowned himself with the unified crown which was the beginning of a new stage in Egypt's history and the beginning of the dynastic era.

She was the mother of the second king of the First Dynasty Hor Aha or Horus the fighter.

After the death of Neithhotep, King Narmer established one of the greatest tombs in Abydos area, where a number of cards and artifacts made of ivory were excavated.
Also, many accessories and boxes were found in her tomb, in addition to the discovery of inscriptions in black and red ink.
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Hidden Ancient Egyptian Paintings Revealed Thanks To New Digital Imaging Tool | IFLScience


http://www.iflscience.com/technology/hidden-features-of-ancient-egyptian-paintings-revealed-thanks-to-new-digital-imaging-tool/all/

Hidden Ancient Egyptian Paintings Revealed Thanks To New Digital Imaging Tool

 
http://cdn.iflscience.com/images/00540fb1-15fb-55a2-852e-fd746bba5e91/extra_large-1516289812-cover-image.jpg This image was revealed to be a vulture, not a hawk.

By Jonathan O'Callaghan
19 Jan 2018, 14:21
Scientists have used a new imaging technique to re-examine Egyptian art and find details that were previously missing.
Linda Evans and Anna-Latifa Mourad from Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia describe in their paper in the Journal of Archaeological Science how they used a technique called DStretch to analyze the ancient paintings. These paintings were found at Beni Hassan, an ancient Egyptian cemetery that's located near to the city of Minya in modern Egypt.
"Egyptologists have not realised [DStretch's] potential in helping us to examine and record ancient wall paintings," Dr Evans told IFLScience.
First developed in 2005, DStretch allows digital images to be enhanced, helping to reveal faint paintings and engravings. The software analyzes three bands of RGB color in an image, and improves the intensity and saturation of them. It sort of stretches the colors out and then maps them back to normal, to show a greater distinction. It's been used on everything from rock art to Mars rover images.
Beni Hassan, used in the Middle Kingdom period (2050 and 1710 BC), is known for its exceptional artwork. Previously we've unearthed some odd things there, like a mongoose being led on a leash.

The researchers identified a third pig in this image. Evans et al

Tombs cut into the rock, believed to belong to commoners at the time, contain scenes of daily life such as farming, hunting, and fishing. The artwork is all multi-colored, using shades of red, brown, blue, green, black, and white, which made digitally enhancing the images a bit difficult according to the researchers.
But doing so yielded a number of interesting discoveries. For example, they have found a herd of pigs drawn on one of the walls of the tombs, only the second known drawing of pigs from the Middle Kingdom period, and another depicting bats.
"The most surprising outcome of the DStretch study has been the confirmation of new images of animals that are incredibly rare in Egyptian art," said Dr Evans.
"There are virtually no depictions of pigs or bats in all of Egyptian art, but we can now confirm that they appear a number of times at Beni Hassan."
Another image showed people dunking a pig into water, with workmen grasping the creature's hind legs. It was thanks to using DStretch that the researchers were able to confirm this was a pig, with hooves, a snout, and bristles on its back.

This weird painting shows a pig being dunked in water. Evans et al

Aother painting described as "highly unusual" in the research shows a figure carrying an animal, possibly a pig, on their shoulders. "The meaning of this somewhat humorous motif remains to be determined," the paper notes.
There's also that impressive image of a bird at the top of this article. Thought originally to be a hawk, image enhancement revealed it to be a vulture, with its large wings outstretched and its feathers painted in red and bluish-green. Meanwhile, an "egg" it was thought to be carrying actually seems to be the upper half of an ankh sign.
"The image of a vulture holding an ankh-symbol in its claws is also really interesting because it's a motif that is otherwise only associated with royal monuments," said Dr Evans. "So, what is it doing in the tomb of a commoner? This is a mystery we still have to solve."
These re-interpretations are giving archaeologists a new look at ancient paintings – and it's hoped there will be more discoveries to come in the future. Beni Hassan is described as a "treasure trove" of animal imagery, so there may be similarly remarkable findings still to be made.
"The new images we have found confirm that animals were a crucial part of ancient Egyptian life," said Dr Evans.

This "highly unusual" image showed someone carrying a pig. Evans et al
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New excavation works led by Zahi Hawas take place in Luxor - Egypt Today


https://www.egypttoday.com/Article/4/40627/New-excavation-works-led-by-Zahi-Hawas-take-place-in
Valley of the Kings –Wikimedia Valley of the Kings –Wikimedia

New excavation works led by Zahi Hawas take place in Luxor

Sat, Jan. 20, 2018

CAIRO – 20 January 2018: The Ministry of Antiquities announced the beginning of new excavation works in Valley of the Monkey, located within Valley of the Kings, after the Permanent Committee for Egyptian Antiquities permitted digging in the site

Led by international Egyptologist and former Minister of Antiquities Zahi Hawas, the forthcoming excavation will be executed by an Egyptian mission.

Uncovering a tomb dated back to the 18th dynasty is the main aim of the forthcoming excavation works. The excavation will take place nearby King Ay's tomb, who succeeded the throne after King Tutankhamun and married his wife Queen Ankhesenamun, according to Mostafa Waziri, secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, who stated these remarks in a press statement released on the Ministry of Antiquities' official Facebook page.

In 2010, an archaeological mission discovered four foundation deposits indicating the existence of a tomb. The tomb might belong to one of King Tutankhamun's family members, as a collection of knives and pottery vessels from the reign of King Amenhotep III, Tutankhamun's grandfather, were found.

According to the Daily Mail website, Hawas' spokesman stated on Hawas' official website, "The radar scans in the area detected the presence of a possible entrance to a tomb at a depth of five meters (16 feet)."


"It is believed that the location of the tomb of Ankhsenamun, Tutankhamun's widow, who married Ay after Tutankhamun's death, is still hidden somewhere in the Valley of the Monkeys."


The Valley of the Monkeys is a side valley in the Valley of the Kings. It was named for the paintings of the 12 monkeys on King Ay's tomb walls.

Queen Anhkesenamun's name is accompanied with two of the most celebrated kings in Ancient Egyptian history: Akhenaten and Tutankhamun.

Born in an unsettled time during the 18th dynasty reign, she was the sixth daughter of King Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti; Ankhesenamun, was originally named Ankhesenpaaten, a name meaning that her life would be dedicated to the god Aten, according to researcher and author Ismail Hamed.


Her former name came from her father, Akhenaten, who was known for his rebellious religious beliefs, as he abandoned various Ancient Egyptian gods and unified them in one god only; Aten.

Ankhesenamun was known for her strong and passionate love for her husband, and half-brother King Tutankhamun. They got married while they were young.


Tutankhamun's tomb narrated different forms of their great love story, for example, one can see inscriptions that tell of Ankhesenamun putting roses on her husband's tomb, in addition to the great painting on Tutankhamun's royal seat, according to prominent Egyptologist and author Zahi Hawas.


When Tutankhamun assumed the throne of Egypt, he tried to ease the critical crisis that had risen between the previous ruler and Amun priests, so he changed the royal name, and added "Amun" to the final syllable of the name instead of "Aten".


He also transformed the official religion of Egypt from "Aten" to "Amun", and renamed Tiba as the official capital of the Egyptian Kingdom.
After Tutankhamun's eleven-year reign, Ankhesenamun feared for her safety, and resulted to asking the huthi king to let her marry one of his sons, according to author Hussein Abdel Basir.



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Taking A 3D Virtual Tour Of A Colorful Ancient Egyptian Monastery


https://www.forbes.com/sites/drsarahbond/2018/01/20/taking-a-3d-virtual-tour-of-a-colorful-ancient-egyptian-monastery/#70f17db96b24
660 The Little Black Book of Billionaire Secrets

Taking A 3D Virtual Tour Of A Colorful Ancient Egyptian Monastery


, historian, digital humanist and baseball fan Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own.

For almost two decades, the ancient wall paintings in Egypt's Red Monastery have been under restoration. Now digital technologies and 3D scanning are allowing thousands to experience the vibrant colors, architecture and monastic art of the late Roman world.

Caroline T. Schroeder

The ceiling of a side room at the Red Monastery puts saints on display (Photo by permission of Caroline T. Schroeder).

The Church of Saints Bishai and Bigol is located near Sohag, Egypt, about 300 miles south of Alexandria. It is most often called the Red Monastery, and was an epicenter for monastic life in Egypt since the 5th century CE. It was part of a network of monasteries in the immediate area where thousands of male and female monks lived, worked and prayed.

The great abbot and saint Shenoute (ca. 347-465 CE) led the nearby White Monastery, which reportedly had 2,200 monks and 1,800 nuns over the course of his involvement in the area's monasteries. Despite its distance from Alexandria, these monastic communities maintained a deep connection to the early Christians and bishops to their north, while still developing their own vibrant communities. These monastic communities were focused on writing--no doubt--but also celebrated the power of art to connect them to their faith. 

Pelagios Project and AWMC

Location of the Red Monastery near Sohag, Egypt. The map is via the Pelagios Project's Peripleo digital map. 

For almost twenty years, restoration, conservation and documentation of the Red Monastery has been underway in a project led by Elizabeth S. Bolman of Case Western University. This was done in conjunction with the Supreme Council of Antiquities and the Coptic Orthodox Church with help from the American Research Center in Egypt (ARCE) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The Red Monastery Project has targeted the encaustic wall painting in particular, which make up about 80 percent of the surfaces within the church. 

The study of these paintings has revealed a rich stratigraphy of paint. In the late fifth century, a thick lime plaster was applied to a number of walls and pastels were added. By the sixth century CE, pinks and greens were used for ornamental painting within the church and tempera was applied for figures such as Shenoute, important church fathers, bishops, saints and persons from the New Testament.

In addition to the painted ornaments and figures, a little over one hundred painted inscriptions (called dipinti) served to contextualize and label the painted figures for those visiting the church in Late Antiquity. Most of these dipinti were not known until Bolman, Paul Dilley and many other scholars set out to clean, decipher and then translate these hidden texts.

Caroline T. Schroeder

Vibrant greens and pinks were used for ornamental decorations in the Red Monastery, such as this apse with a painted curtain (Photo by permission of Caroline T. Schroeder).

Part of the magic of this project has been that while a richly illustrated book was published on the Red Monastery in 2016 that recounts many of their findings, its leaders also embraced the digital humanities. They applied digital tools such as photogrammetry, 3D laser scanning, and GIS as a way of giving people outside of Egypt a visual experience within a Coptic church that they might never otherwise have.

Through the 360Cities app, students, teachers and the public can now explore high definition panoramas of the monastery. They can even load it into Virtual Reality (VR) viewers and take a walk through this 1500 year old sacred space. A video even presents a 3D reconstruction and fly through of the monastery.

We should perhaps see the Red Monastery Project's use of digital tools to document and preserve the art, texts and physical space of late Roman Egypt within a broader effort by academics to preserve early Coptic history. 

Digital projects like the database of coptic texts within the Coptic Scriptorium project, created by Caroline T. Schroeder (University of the Pacific) and Amir Zeldes (Georgetown University) and funded in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities, Office of Digital Humanities and Division of Preservation and Accesshave proven how and why we should be investing in digital preservation of endangered sites and texts.  

Beyond providing preservation and digital access, the project's combination of a monograph with digital visualization have not only restored the polychromy (i.e. the color) of an ancient monastery, it has reconnected it to the late Roman Mediterranean. As Bolman notes, "It's interesting that [the Red Monastery] is in a living (thriving, growing) monastery, in a rural part of Upper Egypt. Today, the region around Sohag has little to do with Mediterranean culture, but when the church was built, that part of Egypt was an important part of the early Byzantine empire. In fact, the conservation project at the church, and the closely associated work on the White Monastery federation and Shenoute has played a huge part in making the argument, from the point of view of visual/material culture." 

The Red Monastery Project is certainly a mix of traditional and digital scholarship that together document a space that is special within the Coptic community of Egypt--a community that has felt greatly under siege in the past few years. It has also underscored the colorful world of monks and nuns, and their rightful connection to the early Christian communities that populated the late Roman and Byzantine Mediterranean.

Caroline T. Schroeder

The newly restored "suckling virgin" apse within the Red Monastery in Egypt (Photo courtesy of Caroline T. Schroeder).

Sarah E. Bond is an Assistant Professor of Classics at the University of Iowa. For more on ancient and medieval history, follow her @SarahEBond.



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Thursday, January 18, 2018

A glance at life in ancient Egypt at Henan Museum - Global Times


http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1085437.shtml

A glance at life in ancient Egypt at Henan Museum

Source:Ecns.cn Published: 2018/1/18 11:52:26

Visitors look at cultural relics in the exhibition 'Egypt - House of Eternity' at Henan Museum in Zhengzhou City, the capital of Central China's Henan Province, Jan. 17, 2018. Displayed in the exhibition are 235 relics collected by a museum in Torino, Italy, including mummies, statues, small pyramids and examples of daily necessities in ancient Egypt. (Photo: China News Service/Wang Zhongju)



 


 



 



 




 

Posted in: ART,ARTS
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New move for Ramses - Ancient Egypt - Heritage - Ahram Online


http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/9/40/288334/Heritage/Ancient-Egypt/New-move-for-Ramses-.aspx

New move for Ramses

The colossal statue of the Pharaoh Ramses II that once stood in Cairo's Ramses Square will move to the Grand Egyptian Museum later this month

Nevine El-Aref , Thursday 18 Jan 2018
Statue of Ramses II
Statue of Ramses II uncovered in Memphis by Joseph Hekekyan, 1852-1854 (Photo: Jean Pascal Sebah)

The relocation of the colossal statue of the ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II from Ramses Square in downtown Cairo to the Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM) overlooking the Giza Plateau received worldwide media coverage in 2006.

The red granite statue is to move again at the end of this month, when it starts its last journey to the permanent display area on the Grand Staircase at the entrance to the GEM. The move will be carried out by the Arab Contractors Company that was responsible for the previous move in 2006.

According to Tarek Tawfik, supervisor-general of the GEM, over the past three weeks the statue has been intensively studied to assess its condition before transportation. Safeguarding procedures have been put in place, and the foam rubber covering the statue has been replaced with stronger material and weak points consolidated.

The road on which the statue will be transported has been paved with special material to bear the weight of the 13m colossus.

"The statue is to be transported in its cage, but it has also been hung on a steel bridge like a pendulum to allow it to move freely during the 400m journey," Tawfik told Al-Ahram Weekly.

He said the Arab Contractors would use the same iron cage and vehicle used in the statue's 2006 transportation. This was specially created to support the weight of the 83-ton colossus. A trial to check the weight of the statue on the vehicle and the road has been implemented. The whole procedure has cost the GEM an amount of LE14 million while in 2006 it cost only LE6 million.

"After making its last journey, the statue of Ramses II will be the first major artefact to enter the permanent collection area of the GEM, the biggest museum in the world," Tawfik asserted.

This is also the fourth time this statue has been moved. The first was 3,000 years ago, shortly after it was carved in an Aswan quarry, when it was ferried down the Nile to Mit Rahina 30km from the Giza Plateau and installed at the Great Temple of Ptah.

In 1882, the statue was discovered broken into six pieces. Attempts to restore and re-erect it in situ failed, and it remained as it was found until former president Gamal Abdel-Nasser decided to erect the statue in front of Cairo's main railway station as a symbol of the country's authentic roots.

In February 1954, minister of governmental affairs Abdel-Latif Al-Boghdadi undertook to move the statue to Bab Al-Hadid (now Ramses Square) in Cairo, where the sculpture of "Egypt's Renaissance" by artist Mahmoud Mokhtar then stood.

The statue was transported to Bab Al-Hadid Square on a tank by the military engineering department to celebrate the second anniversary of the 1952 Revolution and Mokhtar's masterpiece was re-erected in front of Cairo University.

The statue was restored and reassembled in the square, now renamed Ramses Square, by the insertion of iron bars inside the body. A fountain was built in front of it, and it soon became one of Cairo's most famous landmarks, providing a backdrop for several famous film scenes and songs.

However, in subsequent years the square was redeveloped and the statue was largely hidden under a maze of cement structures and flyovers. Former culture minister Farouk Hosni then suggested removing the statue from its location in Ramses Square to protect it from pollution. Several possible new locations were suggested.

It was thought the statue might be returned to its original home at Mit Rahina, but the small local bridge could not have supported the weight of the statue. It was then suggested that it be placed in Giza's Rimaya Square, or at the entrance to the Cairo Opera House, but it was feared that in time these sites would also be affected by traffic fumes and congestion.

In 2002, the GEM was chosen as the permanent home of this magnificent colossus, and the statue made its third journey in 2006 from Ramses Square to the GEM grounds. Its fourth journey, when it will be installed in a place of honour inside the GEM, will take place at the end of this month.

*This story was first published in Al-Ahram Weekly newspaper


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Viral video shows stolen bedroom of Egypt’s last monarch being sold online - Al Arabiya English


http://english.alarabiya.net/en/variety/2018/01/18/Viral-video-shows-stolen-bedroom-of-Egypt-s-last-monarch-being-sold-online.html

Viral video shows stolen bedroom of Egypt's last monarch being sold online

The mahogany and mercury-gilded bronze bedroom suite belonging to late King Farouk. (Screenshot)

Egyptians were furious after seeing a historical bedroom suite belonging to Egypt's late King Farouk put on sale by an American website selling antiquities.

The bedroom, once owned by Egypt's last monarch, has apparently disappeared from the royal rest house in the Giza Zoo in 2013.

Internet users recently discovered that it has been put on sale on an American website M.S. Rau Antiques since 2016.

The mahogany and mercury-gilded bronze bedroom suite is decorated in the Empire style, the set was crafted by one of the premier Parisian Ébéniste of the 19th century, Antoine Krieger.

The YouTube video by the American company displayed the furniture of the room and the date it was manufactured. It is selling the bedroom suite for $989,000 dollars, almost a million dollars.

Egyptian newspaper reports covering the incident said Egypt's agriculture minister back in 2013, Ayman Abu Hadid, was the first to discover that the room has disappeared during a visit to the park.

Reports said that the royal suite was replaced by a cheap version brought for a nearby local department store.

They also said that two Egyptian ministers had formerly occupied the rest house between 1978-1986. A former agriculture minister lived there without his family from 1978 until he left his position in 1982.

The second minister lived with his family until 1986. The royal rest house was closed since then.

Following the media reports, Egypt's attorney-general received this week the first official communique to investigate the incident.

Last Update: Thursday, 18 January 2018 KSA 16:19 - GMT 13:19
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Police seize ancient Egyptian, Greek artifacts in Upper Egypt - Egypt Today


http://www.egypttoday.com/Article/4/40396/Police-seize-ancient-Egyptian-Greek-artifacts-in-Upper-Egypt
Seized artifacts by Tourism and Antiquities Police last year-        File photo
Seized artifacts by Tourism and Antiquities Police last year- File photo

Police seize ancient Egyptian, Greek artifacts in Upper Egypt

Thu, Jan. 18, 2018

CAIRO - 18 January 2018: The Egyptian Tourism and Antiquities Police managed to seize a historical statue dating back to the Pharaonic era, in addition to discovering illegal excavation works, searching for unearthed artifacts beneath two houses in Sohag, according to a statement by the Ministry of Interior.

The police also found a hallway connected to two crypts excavated by the accused; the crypts' walls were made of ancient Greek stones and mud, each taking the shape of a pyramid.

Also, the Egyptian Tourism and Antiquities Police seized a statue made from Pink Granite which was illegaly unearthed by a citizen; the statue carried inscriptions written in the Ancient Egyptian language.

A high level committee from the Central Administration of Conservation and Restoration, and the Supreme Council of Antiquities confirmed the authenticity of the statue, and credited it as a historical artifact.

In the last few months, Tourism and Antiquities Police managed to seize a huge number of artifacts in Upper Egypt; for example, in October 2017, the Egyptian Tourism and Antiquities Police managed to seize around 99 artifacts from two citizens in Assiut.
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More photos of discovery at Al-Alamein


https://www.facebook.com/Ministry-of-Antiquities-وزارة-الآثار-172009302844728/
Ministry of Antiquities وزارة الآثار‎ added 4 new photos.
An Egyptian Archaeological mission working on Alamein archaeological site on the northern coastline has uncovered a rock-hewn tomb that can be dating back to the first and second centuries AD. The discovery was made during the archeological survey carried out on the infra structure project of the New city of Alamein.
Naema Sanad, General Director of Marina Antiquities site and the Head of the Mission explains that the tomb contains of a stair engraved in rock and leads to the main chamber of the tomb with walls bearing a number of burial holes called "Locauli".
She continued that the southern wall of the tomb is decorated with the a Greek religious and artistic decoration depicting a horn with a basin decorated with flowers and tree leaves. To the right of the tomb's entrance there is another chamber that has been added during a later period.
Dr. Eman Abdel Khaleq, senior inspector of the site said that the mission has found in the tomb many artifacts such as a collection of coins dating back to the same age of the tomb in addition to many pottery vessels and two lamps.
Dr. Ayman Ashmawy Head of the Ancient Egyptian Antiquities Sector in the Ministry of Antiquities, explains that the mession working coming in cooperation between the Ministry and the board of Elalamen city wich is providing the mission with the necessary Workforce for the Mission. And a team from the Supreme Council of Antiquities has been assigned to study the human remains discovered in the site and to complete the excavation works.

Top facts about man who unified Egypt - Egypt Today


https://www.egypttoday.com/Article/4/40388/Top-facts-about-man-who-unified-Egypt
Fragmented from Narmer Palette – Photo Courtesy of Wikipedia
Fragmented from Narmer Palette – Photo Courtesy of Wikipedia

Top facts about man who unified Egypt

By: Rana Atef
Thu, Jan. 18, 2018

CAIRO - 18 January 2018: The man who unified Egypt, a common sentence that most Egyptian people hear and knew through school books like "Menes: The Unifier of Upper and Lower Egypt" or even through a number of songs such as Mohamed Mounir's "Etkalemy" (Speak Up).

Although the fact of Narmer/Menes is completely true in the commoners' point of view, it is problematic to Egyptologists. For example, archaeologist and author Joshua J. Mark of Ancient History Encyclopedia explained, "Menes unified the country through conquest. In the early days of Egyptology, these kings were considered to be two different men. Narmer was thought to have attempted unification at the end of one period and Menes to have succeeded him, beginning the next era in Egyptian history."

Meanwhile, the great Egyptologist Flinders Petrie claimed Narmer and Menes were two names designating one man: Narmer was his name and Menes an honorific. Petrie claimed that he was the first pharaoh of the First Dynasty.

So, the first fact about Menes is that he is the founder of the First Dynasty after he unified Egypt in 3200 B.C., according to Manetho.

He constructed the first unified capital for Egypt called Memphis. Furthermore, he surrounded it with a white wall, according to researcher and author Hussein Abdel Bassir.

Menes not only unified the lands of Egypt, but he also unified the official religion, making Horus the god of Egypt, according to private newspaper El Fagr's historical series.

Abdel Bassir also added that Menes enhanced the economic and military presence of Egypt in the lands of Canaan.

A number of late discoveries expressed that Canaan was a part of the Egyptian kingdom, not just an economic partner.

In 1994, a number of Israeli archaeological missions unearthed many artifacts that dated back to the Egyptian pre-dynastic era, in addition to Menes' reign, El Fagr's historical series stated.

In 1988, one of the greatest archaeological discoveries was found by British archaeologists James E. Quibell and Frederick W. Green in the Temple of Horus at Nekhen, which is the Narmer Palette

The Narmer Palette indicated huge information about Lower and Upper Egypt's gods such as Hathor and Horus.

Also, the palette shows Menes' military victories while unifying Egypt, and it portrayed Narmer while wearing the unified crown of Egypt with two colors.

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Wednesday, January 17, 2018

Ancient Egyptian Queens: Ankhesenamun; royal sister and wife - Egypt Today


http://www.egypttoday.com/Article/4/39546/Ancient-Egyptian-Queens-Ankhesenamun-royal-sister-and-wife
Tutankhamun and his Wife Ankhesenamun painting on        Tutankhamun's royal seat – SmithSonian Channel/Youtube Tutankhamun and his Wife Ankhesenamun painting on Tutankhamun's royal seat – SmithSonian Channel/Youtube

Ancient Egyptian Queens: Ankhesenamun; royal sister and wife

Sun, Jan. 7, 2018

CAIRO – 7 January 2018: Today, Ancient Egyptians captivate the minds of people around the world because of their extraordinary contributions to civilization. Egypt Today presents a glimpse on the greatest queens in Ancient Egypt.

Last time, Egypt Today shed light on Ankhesenpepi II's life, but the chosen queen for today is Ankhesenamun.

Her name is always accompanied with two of the most celebrated kings in the Ancient Egyptian history: Akhenaten and Tutankhamun.

Born in an unsettled time during the 18th dynasty reign, she was the sixth daughter of King Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti, Ankhesenamun originally named as Ankhesenpaaten which means her life is for Aten, according to researcher and author Ismail Hamed.

Akhenaten is known for his rebellious religious beliefs, as he abandoned various Ancient Egyptian gods and unified them in one god only which is Aten.
Ankhesenamun was known for her strong and passionate love for her husband, and half-brother King Tutankhamun. They got married while they were young.

His tomb narrated different forms of their great love story, for example Ankhesenamun put roses on her husband's tomb, in addition to the great painting on Tutankhamun's royal seat, according to prominent Egyptologist and author Zahi Hawas.

When Tutankhamun reached the throne of Egypt, he tried to ease the critical crisis between the ruler and Amun priests, so he changed the royal name, and added "Amun" to the final syllable of the name instead of "Aten".

He also transformed the official religion of Egypt from "Aten" to "Amun", and renamed Tiba as the official capital of the Egyptian Kingdom.
After Tutankhamun's eleven-year reign, Ankhesenamun feared for her safety, so she asked the huthi king to let her marry one of his sons, according to author Hussein Abdel Basir.

Referred to as "Egypt's lost princess," the mummy of Ankhesenamun has not yet been found, but in 2017, a number of news agencies such as Fox News, and the Daily Mail reported that a number of experts claimed discovering Ankhesenamun's tomb.
"A tomb that may have belonged to the wife of King Tutankhamun has been discovered in Egypt's Valley of the Kings, according to archaeologists," Fox News reported on July 19, 2017.
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Reading the Egyptian Art (I). - María Rosa Valdesogo


http://www.mariarosavaldesogo.com/reading-the-egyptian-art/

Reading the Egyptian Art (I).

Egyptian art had a magical-functional purpose and did not take into consideration the figure of the spectator.

For that reason, we cannot consider Egyptian art from just an aesthetic empiricism. Which makes art feel in a subjective way through sensations.

We must read the Egyptian Art from the technical realization, but also from its ideological-religious motivation, a motivation of a social group that gives the work a collective nature.

Egyptian Art is Objects and Texts.

In ancient Egypt written language and figurative language go together. Usually the images reach where the texts do not arrive and vice versa. For that reason, Objects in Egyptian art must be "read", as if they were manuscripts or inscriptions.

The art of ancient Egypt is neither as transparent nor as natural as it seems at first sight. Egyptian Art is a figurative art that does not always present evidence and whose images often contain codified information.

Statue of Ramses II from Tanis.

We have a good example in a statue of Ramses II, from Tanis and now in the Cairo Museum  At first glance, it is an image of Ramses II child protected by the figure of the god Huron.

However, this, which is pure iconography, has an iconology that turns this statue into a true cryptogram in three dimensions.

Ramses II from Tanis. Ancient Egypt and Egyptian Art.

Statue of Ramses II from Tanis. Cairo Museum. Photo: Panoramio

Reading literally every part of this sculpture, we get the following:

• The solar disk that appears on the head of Ramses is "Ra" in Ancient Egyptian.

• The image of Ramses is that of a child and follows the protocol of the infantile effigies: the finger of the right hand to the mouth. We should read this part of the statue as "mes", which means "child" in Egyptian.

• Ramses holds with his left hand a reed, which was in Egyptian the word "su".

Reading together these three parts, we say Ra-me-su, the name of the Pharaoh.

We find a sculpture that embodies Ramses II, but also contains his name.

 

 

Offering Statues.

Another example is the royal statues in which the sovereign appears holding some offerings in the form of globular containers.

Normally these vessels contain water or wine, so these statues represented the sovereign making a libation.

Nevertheless, a more exhaustive analysis shows us that this is not really the case. Usually, the only text inscribed on these statues is a title inscription on the dorsal pillar or on the base of the figure. However, in some statues of this type of Queen Hatshepsut, we read inscriptions like these ones: "Maatkare is the one who offers Maat to Amun" or "The Perfect Goddess Maatkare is the one who offers the vegetables to Amun".

Offering Statue of Sobekhotep V. Berlin Museum. Ancient            Egypt

Offering Estatue of Sobekhotep V. Berlin Museum. Photo: Maria Rosa Valdesogo

That is, the text does not indicate that the gesture of delivering globular vessels is a gesture of libation; we are not necessarily facing a liquid offering. Actually, what the statue reproduces is the henek gesture. That in Egyptian means "to offer" and the hieroglyphic is: It follows that these images with the globular vessels nw are not indicating a libation, but simply an offering. The Egyptian artist shapes the hieroglyph in three dimensions, uniting it with the image of a monarch.

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Fwd: Ugly Object – January


https://kelseymuseum.wordpress.com/2018/01/17/ugly-object-january/

Happy New Year, Kelsey Blog readers! What better way to begin 2018's Ugly Object series than with a seriously cute cat coffin? This creative work of bilateral symmetry once held the remains of a mummified cat. The feline shape and decorative elements are charming (just look at those eyes! and the suggestion of a mane around the face…), but what I love most about this coffin is the surprise that comes with discovering that it opens side to side instead of top to bottom. As a result, the coffin's base is effectively the cat's seat, and the resulting form is upright, alert, and lifelike. The coffin is displayed closed, so it's hard to appreciate the fact that, except for a couple of attached ears, its halves are carved from a single, hollowed cut of wood. Wood was a precious commodity in Egypt, so this coffin was nothing to sneeze at. This would have been a fitting enclosure for a creature so closely linked to the divine.

You can see this coffin and other feline-themed artifacts in the Graeco-Roman Egypt gallery of the Upjohn Exhibit Wing.

Cat mummy coffin

Cat mummy coffin, Roman period, 1st–2nd c. AD, Wood, plaster, paint, glass, 36 cm high, 9.5 cm wide, Said to be from Saqqara, Egypt.  Department of Antiquities purchase, 1935, KM 88775, Image credit: Randal Stegmeyer

 

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Egypt to develop Alexandria's Kom El-Shoqafa archaeological site into open-air museum - Greco-Roman - Heritage - Ahram Online


http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/9/41/288258/Heritage/GrecoRoman/Egypt-to-develop-Alexandrias-Kom-ElShoqafa-archaeo.aspx

Egypt to develop Alexandria's Kom El-Shoqafa archaeological site into open-air museum

Nevine El-Aref , Wednesday 17 Jan 2018
alex

A development project that aims to convert the Kom El-Shoqafa archaeological site in Alexandria into an open-air museum will involve the creation of a new display scheme for its artefacts.

Kom El-Shoqafa consists of a series of catacombs, statues and artefacts of the ancient Egyptian funeral cult, with Hellenistic and early imperial Roman influences.

Mostafa Waziri, the secretary-general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, told Ahram Online that the museum will be divided into four sections; the first devoted to funerary structures, the second to religious buildings; the third to civil edifices; and the fourth will serve as a temporary exhibition.

The first section will have on display a collection of 34 sarcophagi, as well as the "Abundant" tomb and the tomb of "El-Ibrahimi" after reconstruction on the tomb – which is currently dismantled and stored in the site's storehouses – is complete.

The second section will display a collection of sphinx statues and the remains of Semouha temple, which are currently in storage.

The third section will have on display remains of crowns of pillars and the remains of statues and pillars.

Aymen Ashmawi, the head of the Ancient Egyptian Antiquities Department, told Ahram Online that the fourth section will display artefacts selected to be displayed at Giza's Grand Egyptian Museum, which is set to open, and Alexandria's Greaco-Roman museum after it is restored.

"After the removal of these artefacts, this section will have on display newly discovered objects from the site," Ashmawy said.

The catacombs of Kom El-Shoqafa are the largest known Roman burial site in Egypt, with three tiers of tombs that can accommodate up to 300 corpses.

The tombs were originally dug for a single family still practicing the ancient Egyptian religion; however, the architecture of the tombs mirrors the Greco-Roman style.

This can be seen in the wall decoration, which shows a unique combination of Egyptian, Greek and Roman artistic traditions. The tomb was likely expanded later to allow for the burial of more corpses.


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Ministry of Antiquities celebrates Archeologists’ Day - Egypt Today


https://www.egypttoday.com/Article/4/40348/Ministry-of-Antiquities-celebrates-Archeologists'-Day
Honors of the Ministry of Antiquities. Photo courtesy of the        Ministry of Antiquities official page on Facebook Honors of the Ministry of Antiquities. Photo courtesy of the Ministry of Antiquities official page on Facebook

Ministry of Antiquities celebrates Archeologists' Day

Wed, Jan. 17, 2018

CAIRO – 17 January 2018: Ministry of Antiquities celebrated the 10th anniversary of the Archeologists' Day at Cairo Opera House in the presence of Minister of Antiquities Khaled El-Anany and the new Minister of Culture, Ines Abdeldayem on Sunday.

Several parliament representatives, former ministers, and ambassadors attended the celebration in which El-Anany gave a speech. Hisham Al-Leithi, Director of the Antiquities Registration Center at the Ministry said that there was an artistic performance and honoring several Egyptian and Islamic archeologists and also some employees at the Ministry of Antiquities.

During his speech, El-Anany said that this celebration is a serious attempt to protect the Egyptian civilizations. He also added that the positions of 27,000 employees would be verified.

Some of the guests of honors were Ahmed Abdel Razik and Amal El-Emary, professors at the Islamic archeology section at Cairo University, Zeinab EL Kurdy, professor at the Egyptian archeology section at Cairo University among others.
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Has Tutankhamun's tragic teenage wife finally been found? | Daily Mail Online


http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5279643/Has-Tutankhamuns-tragic-teenage-wife-finally-found.html

Has Tutankhamun's tragic teenage wife finally been found? Archaeologists begin dig for the body of Ankhesenamun who 'married her father, her grandfather AND her half-brother' after discovering a new tomb

  • World renowned archaeologist Zahi Hawass found the site back in July
  • Radar scans of the area detected a possible tomb entrance buried underground 
  • He has now announced the start of the dig in Egypt's Valley of The Kings 
  • If confirmed it could help to unravel the final fate of the boy king's queen

The mystery of the final resting place of the wife of Ancient Egypt's most famous ruler has moved a step closer to being solved.

Egyptologists previously discovered what they believe is the burial chamber of Ankhesenamun, Tutankhamun's wife, in the Valley of The Kings.

If confirmed, it could help to unravel the final fate of the boy king's wife, who suddenly disappeared from historical records after her second marriage.

The teen bride is believed to have had a tragic life, marrying her father, her grandfather and her half-brother Tutankhamun.

Archaeologists have now begun to excavate an area near a tomb at the World Heritage Site, which they believe contains her body.

The mystery of the final resting place of the wife of                Ancient Egypt's most famous ruler has moved a step closer                to being solved. Archaeologists have now begun to excavate                an area near a tomb in the Valley of The Kings (pictured)                which they believe contains her body

The mystery of the final resting place of the wife of Ancient Egypt's most famous ruler has moved a step closer to being solved. Archaeologists have now begun to excavate an area near a tomb in the Valley of The Kings (pictured) which they believe contains her body

ANKHESENAMUN 

The wife of Ancient Egypt's most famous ruler may have been uncovered in the Valley of The Kings.

Egyptologists have discovered what they believe is the burial chamber of Ankhesenamun, Tutankhamun's wife. 

World renowned archaeologist and former Egpytian minister for antiquities, Zahi Hawass, uncovered the burial plot near the tomb of the pharaoh Ay.

Ankhesenamun, who was married to Tutankhamun, who reigned from 1332 to 1327 BC, was wed with Ay after Tutankhamun's sudden death.

Evidence of foundation deposits, caches of pottery, food remains and other tools, suggest the construction of a tomb at the site.

The team plan to excavate the newly discovered chamber to determine exactly who is inside.

The team plan to excavate the newly discovered chamber to determine exactly who is inside.

Archaeologist and former Egyptian minister for antiquities, Zahi Hawass, announced the start of the dig on his website.

He discovered the suspected burial plot near the tomb of the pharaoh Ay in July 2017, using ground penetrating radar.

In a written statement, a spokesman for Hawass' research team said: 'In January 2018, Zahi Hawass launched his own excavations at the Valley of the Monkeys, a side valley in the area of the Valley of the Kings. 

'The focus of the excavations is in the area in close proximity to the tomb of Ay, Tutankhamun's successor. 

'The radar scans in the area detected the presence of a possible entrance to a tomb at a depth of five metres (16 feet).  

'It is believed that the location of the tomb of Ankhsenamun, Tutankhamun's widow, who married Ay after Tutankhamun's death, is still hidden somewhere in the Valley of the Monkeys.'

Ankhesenamun, who was married to Tutankhamun, who reigned from 1332 to 1327 BC, was wed with Ay after Tutankhamun's sudden death.

Ay ruled immediately after King Tut, from 1327 to 1323 BC. 

Evidence of foundation deposits, caches of pottery, food remains and other tools, suggest the construction of a tomb at the site.

Hawass' team plan to excavate the newly discovered chamber to determine exactly who is inside.

Speaking to LiveScience at the time of its discovery, Hawass said: 'We are sure there is a tomb there, but we do not know for sure to whom it belongs.

'We are sure there is a tomb hidden in that area because I found four foundation deposits.

'The ancient Egyptians usually did four or five foundation deposits whenever they started a tomb's construction.

'[And] the radar did detect a substructure that could be the entrance of a tomb.' 

Ankhesenamun was the third child of Pharaoh Akhenaten and Nefertiti and was born in around 1348BC.

She was originally called Ankhesenpaaten, but her change of name reflects changes in Ancient Egyptian religion during her lifetime.

If confirmed, it could help to unravel the final fate                of the boy king's wife, who suddenly disappeared from                historical records after her second marriage. This image                shows Tutankhamun (left) receiving flowers from                Ankhesenamun (right) as a sign of love

If confirmed, it could help to unravel the final fate of the boy king's wife, who suddenly disappeared from historical records after her second marriage. This image shows Tutankhamun (left) receiving flowers from Ankhesenamun (right) as a sign of love

She was the half sister and cousin of Tutankhamun, with the pair sharing the same father. 

Tutankhamun's mother, believed to have been Nefertiti, is thought to have been Ankhesenamun's aunt.

The queen is said to have married King Tut when he took the throne at the age of nine, when she was just a few years older.

After their marriage the pair changed their names in honour of the old monotheistic religion that they reverted back to.

Some records suggest she married her grandfather after the death of King Tut.

Others that she was briefly the wife of her father beforehand. 

King Tut became pharaoh in around 1332 BC and ruled for just nine years until his death.  

World renowned archaeologist and former Egpytian                minister for antiquities, Zahi Hawass, uncovered the                burial plot near the tomb of the pharaoh Ay. Ankhesenamun,                who was married to Tutankhamun, who reigned from 1332 to                1327 BC (tomb pictured)

World renowned archaeologist and former Egpytian minister for antiquities, Zahi Hawass, uncovered the burial plot near the tomb of the pharaoh Ay. Ankhesenamun, who was married to Tutankhamun, who reigned from 1332 to 1327 BC (tomb pictured)

Tutankhamun's significance stems from his rejection of the radical religious innovations introduced by his predecessor and father, Akhenaten. 

When King Tut was aged 12 the backlash against the new religion was so intense that the young pharaoh changed his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun. 

A year later, the royal court moved back to the old capital at Thebes, now called Luxor, which was the centre of worship of the god Amun and the power base of the Amun priests. 

King Tut is considered a minor phaorah. 

THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS 

The Valley of the Kings in upper Egypt is one of the main tourist attractions of the country, next to the Giza pyramid complex.

The majority of the pharaohs of the 18th to 20th dynasties, who ruled from 1550 to 1069 BC, rested in the tombs which were cut into the local rock.

The most famous pharaoh at the site is Tutankhamen, whose tomb was discovered in 1922.

Preserved to this day, in the tomb are original decorations of sacred imagery from, among others, the Book of Gates or the Book of Caverns. 

These are among the most important funeral texts found on the walls of ancient Egyptian tombs. 

However, his fame arose when his tomb was found in 1922 by Howard Carter. 

It was almost intact and remains the most complete ancient Egyptian royal tomb ever found.

And the tomb continues to reveal hidden secrets even today.

In February 2017, archaeologists announced plans to resume the search for lost burial chambers in King Tutankhamun's tomb.

The news follows more than a year of speculation after British Egyptologist, Nicholas Reeves, said he found signs of a hidden doorway in King Tut's tomb.

Some experts believe Tutankhamun's tomb was in fact              Nefertiti's, and when the boy king died unexpectedly at a              young age, he was rushed into her tomb's outer chamber in              Luxor's Valley of Kings

Some experts believe Tutankhamun's tomb was in fact Nefertiti's, and when the boy king died unexpectedly at a young age, he was rushed into her tomb's outer chamber in Luxor's Valley of Kings

At the time, he said one of the secret rooms could be the burial place of Queen Nefertiti.

A team now plans to use radar systems to scan the 3,300-year-old chamber. 

The search will be led by the Polytechnic University Turin, Italy and will be the third team in the past two years researchers have looked for the lost chamber. 

Mamdouh Eldamaty, Egypt's former antiquities minister, said there is a '90 per cent' chance the tomb has hidden chambers.

He claims that and finding them would be the 'discovery of the century'.

WERE KING TUTANKHAMUN'S PARENTS ALSO COUSINS? 

The complex family arrangements of Tutankhamun has been one of the great mysteries surrounding the young king.

While his father was known to have been Pharaoh Akhenaten, the identity of his mother has been far more elusive.

DNA testing has shown that Queen Tiye, whose mummy is pictured above, was the grandmother of the Egyptian Boy King Tutankhamun

In 2010 DNA testing confirmed a mummy found in the tomb of Amenhotep II was Queen Tiye, the chief wife of Amenhotep III, mother of Pharaoh Akhenanten, and Tutankhamun's grandmother.

A third mummy, thought to be one of Pharaoh Akhenaten wives, was found to be a likely candidate as Tutankhamun's mother, but DNA evidence showed it was Akhenaten's sister.

Later analysis in 2013 suggested Nefertiti, Akhenaten's chief wife, was Tutankhamun's mother.

However, the work by Marc Gabolde, a French archaeologist, has suggested Nefertiti was also Akhenaten's cousin.

This incestuous parentage may also help to explain some of the malformations that scientists have discovered afflicted Tutankhamun.

He suffered a deformed foot, a slightly cleft palate and mild curvature of the spine.

However, his claims have been disputed by other Egyptologists, including Zahi Hawass, head of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities.

His team's research suggests that Tut's mother was, like Akhenaten, the daughter of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye. 

Hawass added that there is 'no evidence' in archaeology or philology to indicate that Nefertiti was the daughter of Amenhotep III.

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